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Environment at a Glance 2013
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branch 2. Sectoral trends of environmental significance
  branch GDP, population and consumption

This section provides important socio-economic background information, particularly with regard to economic growth, population and consumption.

Definition

The indicators presented here refer to:

  • Economic growth. They present total GDP, expressed at 2005 price levels and purchasing power parities, and GDP per capita, and the change in GDP per capita since 1990. The structure of GDP is given as a complement. It shows value added in agriculture (hunting, forestry and fishing); industry (mining and quarrying, manufacturing, gas, electricity and water, and construction); and services. Value added excludes financial intermediation services indirectly measured.
  • Population growth and density. They present changes in national resident population (all nationals present in or temporarily absent from a country, and aliens permanently settled in the country), as well as population densities (the number of residents compared to the total area of the country) and an “ageing index” (the ratios between the population over 64 and under 15).
  • Private consumption, i.e. by households and private non-profit institutions serving households. They present private final consumption expenditure expressed as % of GDP and per capita, as well as the structure of private consumption. Private final consumption expenditure is the largest component of final uses of GDP, representing in general around 60% of GDP. It represents the sum of: i) the outlays of resident households on new durable and non-durable goods and services less their net sales of second-hand goods, scraps and wastes; ii) he value of goods and services produced by private non-profit institutions for own use on current account. It is expressed at 2005 price levels and purchasing power parities. Rent refers to imputed rent.
  • Government consumption, presenting general government final consumption expenditure expressed as percentage of GDP and per capita. Total general government final consumption is important as a component of total GDP, and reflects the government's direct role as a “consumer” of final goods and services. It represents the value of goods and services produced by governments for their own use on current account; and is expressed at 2005 price levels and purchasing power parities.

Comparability

The comparability of population and GDP estimates across countries is good. However, some care is needed in interpretation, for example Luxembourg and, to a lesser extent, Switzerland have a relatively large number of frontier workers. Such workers contribute to GDP but are excluded from the population figures, which is one of the reasons why cross-country comparisons of income per capita based on gross or net national income (GDI and NNI) are often preferred.

The comparability of private consumption expenditure is good, that of general government expenditure is high.

For additional notes, see Annex B.

Sources

OECD (2012a), “OECD Economic Outlook No. 91” , OECD Economic Outlook: Statistics and Projections (database), http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/data-00606-en.

OECD (2012b), “Labour Force Statistics: Summary tables” , OECD Employment and Labour Market Statistics (database), http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/data-00286-en.

OECD (2010), “Aggregate National Accounts: Gross domestic product” , OECD National Accounts Statistics (database), http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/data-00001-en.

World Bank (2012), World Development Indicators, http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators.

Further information

FAO, FAOSTAT (database), http://faostat.fao.org/.

FAO, www.fao.org/home/en/.

OECD (2013), National Accounts at a Glance, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/na_glance-2013-en.

Information on data for Israel: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932315602.

Indicator in PDF Acrobat PDF page

Tables 
2.7. Gross domestic product (GDP)
    Table in Excel
2.8. Population density and ageing
    Table in Excel
2.9. Private and government final consumption expenditure
    Table in Excel

Figures 
2.15. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, 2011 Figure in Excel
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, 2011
2.16. Population density, 2011 Figure in Excel
Population density, 2011
2.17. Private final consumption expenditure, 2011 or latest available year Figure in Excel
Private final consumption expenditure, 2011 or latest available year
2.18. Government final consumption expenditure, 2011 or latest available year Figure in Excel
Government final consumption expenditure, 2011 or latest available year