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Environment at a Glance 2013
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branch 2. Sectoral trends of environmental significance
  branch Energy prices and taxes

Energy end-use prices influence overall energy demand and the fuel mix, which in turn determine environmental pressures caused by energy activities. They also help internalise environmental costs. Though price elasticity varies considerably by end-use sector, historical and cross-country experience suggests that the overall price effect on energy demand is strong and that increases in energy prices have reduced energy use and hence its environmental impact.

Definitions

The indicators presented here relate to:

  • Energy end-use prices and taxes for selected energy sources and for industry and households.
  • Real price indices are calculated using the Paasche method and deflated using the country-specific producer price index (industrial sector) and the consumer price index (household sector).

When analysing energy end-use prices, consideration should be given to the various support measures that may provide a benefit or preference for a particular activity or product, either absolutely or relatively. Equally, when examining energy taxes, consideration should be given to the range of energy products taxed, tax base definitions, and tax rate levels and rebates.

Overview

Energy prices and related taxes, whether for industry or households, vary widely among countries for all types of energy.

Real end-use energy prices have been relatively stable in most OECD countries up to the early 2000s, though rates of change differ greatly among countries. Since then, real end-use prices have increased mainly due to a rise in crude oil prices.

 

Comparability

Care should be taken when comparing end-use energy prices, and the way that energy use is taxed. In view of the large number of factors involved, direct comparisons may be misleading. However, comparisons may be the starting point for analysis of differences observed.

For additional notes, see Annex B.

Sources

IEA on-line data service, http://data.iea.org.

IEA energy prices, www.iea.org/stats/surveys/mps.pdf .

IEA (2013), Energy Prices and Taxes, Vol. 2012/4, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/energy_tax-v2012-4-en.

Further information

IEA (2012a), Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 2012, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/energy_stats_oecd-2012-en.

IEA (2012b), World Energy Outlook 2012, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/weo-2012-en.

OECD (2013a), Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels 2013, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264187610-en.

OECD (2013b), Taxing Energy Use: A Graphical Analysis, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264183933-en.

Information on data for Israel: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932315602.

Indicator in PDF Acrobat PDF page

Table 
2.2. Selected energy prices for industry and households, 2011 or latest available year
    Table in Excel

Figures 
2.5. Tax component of oil prices for industry and households, 2011 or latest available year Figure in Excel
Tax component of oil prices for industry and households, 2011 or latest available year
2.6. Selected energy prices for industry, 2011 or latest available year Figure in Excel
Selected energy prices for industry, 2011 or latest available year
2.7. Selected energy prices for households, 2011 or latest available year Figure in Excel
Selected energy prices for households, 2011 or latest available year