Since 2000, OECD member countries have been working towards making all public services for citizens and businesses fully available online. In addition to the potential efficiencies gained by lowering the administrative burdens on clients, developing and implementing integrated e-government services often requires governments to standardise internal processes and data in order to integrate back-office functions across the public sector. However, some countries have legal or regulatory constraints that limit or prevent them from sharing data for service integration. Nevertheless, e-government service maturity can be a proxy for the extent to which countries are generating internal efficiencies through the use of ICT.
The European Commission has developed an internationally recognised model to analyse the maturity of 20 core e-government services using 3 indicators. The sophistication indicator provides a portrait of a country's progress in making all services available online. The full online availability indicator evaluates the number of public services that can be entirely handled online (i.e. citizens or businesses can submit completed forms or payments online, in addition to finding information about the service). The national portal indicator assesses the degree to which the main government website provides a "one-stop-shop" for users to access public services.
On average, OECD member countries monitored by the European Commission exhibit a high degree of e--government service maturity. Austria, Portugal and the United Kingdom are leaders with regard to sophistication and online availability. OECD European -member nations show the largest disparity in the percentage of the 20 core public services that are fully available online, ranging from about 20% in Switzerland, to almost 100% in Austria.
Methodology and definitions
The European Commission's indicators are based on the basket of the following 20 core -public services:
12 citizen-oriented services: income taxes, job search services, social security benefits, personal documents, car registration, building permits, police reports, public libraries, certificates, higher education enrolment, moving announcements and health-related services.
8 business-oriented services: social contributions for employees, corporate taxes, value-added tax, registration of a new company, -submission of data to statistical offices, -customs declarations, environment-related permits and public procurement.
The three indicators are based on a model defining five stages of e-government service maturity: information, one-way interaction (downloadable forms), two-way interaction (electronic forms), transaction (full electronic case handling) and personalisation (pro-active, automated).
The sophistication indicator benchmarks countries according to the development phase of their e-government services, and indicates the average level of service maturity. The index ranges from 0 (no services available online) to 1 (a high degree of availability and maturity of e?government services). The full online availability indicator calculates the percentage of -services that have reached the fourth stage of maturity. The national portal indicator assesses the percentage of core public services accessible through the national portal, whether it provides personalisation options such as log-in features, the number of ways users can access services (such as by department, type of service or life event), and whether branding and graphics are consistent. The index ranges from 0 (low degree of accessibility) to 1 (high degree of accessibility). More information on these indexes is available in the source listed below.
Data are provided for 23 European OECD member countries monitored by the European Commission. The following OECD -member countries are not included in the European Commission data: Australia, Canada, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand and the United States.
Figure 30.3: Data for Turkey are not available. Data for Denmark were collected in 2006 and refer to danmark.dk, a national -portal that was being phased out and was replaced by borger.dk on 1 January 2007. In October 2008, a new edition of borger.dk was launched that includes personalisation options.
Indicator in PDF
30.1. Sophistication of e-government services (2007)
30.2. Full-online availability of e-government services (2007)