OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers

SMEs and Employment Creation
ISSN :
1815-1965 (online)
DOI :
10.1787/18151965
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The OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry (STI) leads OECD research on the contribution of science, technology and industry to well-being and economic growth. STI Working Papers cover a broad range of topics including definition and measurement of science and technology indicators, global value chains, and research on policies to promote innovation. These technical or analytical working papers are prepared by staff or outside consultants to share early insights and elicit feedback.
 
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Mark Number Date TitleClick to Access
  N° 1996/04   01 Jan 1996 Click to Access:  SMEs and Employment Creation
Paul Schreyer
High and rising unemployment rates in the early 1990s have moved the employment question centrestage in the policy debate. Among the structural aspects, the relation between firm size and employment creation has attracted policy makers’ attention, triggered by empirical work on the United...
  N° 1996/02   01 Jan 1996 Click to Access:  The Impact of R&D and Technology Diffusion on Productivity Growth
Norihisa Sakurai, Evangelos Ioannidis, George Papaconstantinou
This paper examines the empirical evidence on the impact of performed R&D and of embodied R&D on productivity performance in 10 major OECD countries (the G7 countries, Australia, Denmark and the Netherlands) over the last two decades. Industry-level performed R&D and embodied R&D variables...
  N° 1996/08   01 Jan 1996 Click to Access:  The Evolution of Skills in OECD Countries and the Role of Technology
Alessandra Colecchia, George Papaconstantinou
The aim of this paper is two-fold: to highlight stylised facts about recent trends in the skill distribution of employment and to analyse the role that technological change might have in explaining these dynamics. Data on industrial employment broken down by occupation recently assembled by the...
  N° 1996/07   01 Jan 1996 Click to Access:  Measuring R&D in the Services
Alison Young
The aim of this paper is to identify the main problems of comparison between countries and over time of the data on R&D performed in the services industries collected by Member countries and reported to OECD, given the recent rapid growth in their share of total R&D expenditures in the...
  N° 1996/01   01 Jan 1996 Click to Access:  Embodied Technology Diffusion
George Papaconstantinou, Norihisa Sakurai, Andrew Wyckoff
This paper examines the process of embodied technology diffusion in 10 OECD countries with the help of a methodology whereby the purchases of intermediate and capital goods act as carriers of technology across industries and countries. In terms of supply and demand of technology, it establishes...
  N° 1996/03   01 Jan 1996 Click to Access:  Short-Term Indicators
Paul Schreyer, Corinne Emery
Short-term economic indicators play an important role in the assessment of current cyclical situations and in the establishment of forecasts. Broadly, two types of short-term indicators can be distinguished: qualitative indicators, reflecting businessmen’s subjective assessment of the cyclical...
  N° 1996/06   01 Jan 1996 Click to Access:  Factors Influencing the Steel Work Force
Donald F. Barnett
The steel industry in OECD countries has undergone profound change during the past several decades. Capacity has been reduced significantly, while substantial investment has been made to improve processing efficiency and product quality. Two key technological developments have driven this...
  N° 1996/05   01 Jan 1996 Click to Access:  Globalisation and Competitiveness
Thomas Hatzichronoglou
The economy’s entry into its globalisation phase has radically altered the nature of competition. Now, numerous new actors from every market in the world (see section 1 and summary table) are simultaneously in competition on every market. This new competition has accentuated the interdependence...
  N° 1997/02   01 Jan 1997 Click to Access:  Revision of the High-Technology Sector and Product Classification
Thomas Hatzichronoglou
This paper describes the methods used to classify the OECD countries’ industrial sectors and manufactures by level of technology, and presents the resulting classifications. In the proposed new classification by industrial sector, the concept of technology intensity has been expanded to take...
  N° 1997/01   01 Jan 1997 Click to Access:  Bibliometric Indicators and Analysis of Research Systems
Yoshiko Okubo
This report – linked to the technical documents of the OECD manuals for the measurement of R&D activities ("Frascati Family") – presents the essential elements of bibliometrics and its application to the analysis of research systems. Bibliometrics is based on the enumeration and statistical...
  N° 1998/01   18 Mar 1998 Click to Access:  Relative Trade-Weighted Unit Labour Costs by Industry
Karine Lepron, Paul Schreyer
This document presents three alternative methods for the construction of indicators of relative tradeweighted unit labour costs by industry as well as the empirical results based on these methods for 18 OECD Member countries. With some exceptions, the results show that the indicators derived...
  N° 1998/03   09 July 1998 Click to Access:  Institutional Arrangements for Access to Confidential Micro-Level Data in OECD Countries
Kazuyuki Motohashi
This document, based on country surveys carried out by the OECD, compares the experiences of OECD countries in dealing with confidentiality constraints in an effort to meet the demand for policy-relevant analysis using micro-data. It shows that countries have made significant efforts to...
  N° 1998/02   13 July 1998 Click to Access:  Information and Communication Technology and the Measurement of Real Output, Final Demand and Productivity
Paul Schreyer
Over the past decades, the majority of information and communication technology (ICT) products have undergone rapid technical change. To the extent that such technical progress benefits consumers and users, quality improvements should be reflected in official price and quantity indices. When...
  N° 1998/04   15 July 1998 Click to Access:  OECD Data on Skills
OECD
This document is aimed at disseminating to a wider public the data on employment by industry and occupations for ten OECD countries, that have been collected over the last few years in the context of analytical work aimed at exploring empirically the changing patterns of skills in OECD...
  N° 1998/05   18 Dec 1998 Click to Access:  Assessment of the Belgian S&T Statistical System and Priorities for Development Work
Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie
The objective of this report is to make recommendations regarding the most important S&T statistical information required by the DSTI to enable it to include Belgian indicators more frequently in its official reports and publications. The suggested priority areas are defined with respect to...
  N° 1999/01   19 May 1999 Click to Access:  Description of National Innovation Surveys Carried Out, or Foreseen, in 1997-99 in OECD Non-CIS-2 Participants and NESTI Observer Countries
Geneviève Muzart
Following the revision of the Oslo Manual (1997) and the preparation of the second Community Innovation Survey (CIS-2), a number of OECD and NESTI observer countries have carried out (or are preparing) new innovation surveys. According to national policy needs, these new national innovation...
  N° 1999/02   20 Sep 1999 Click to Access:  The Globalisation of Industry in the OECD Countries
Thomas Hatzichronoglou
The most highly internationalised industries are thought to be more competitive than the rest, since their high exposure to international competition forces them to strive constantly to become more efficient and they are in a position to take advantage of all the opportunities that arise in...
  N° 1999/03   14 Oct 1999 Click to Access:  Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade
Lionel Fontagné
The relationships between trade and foreign investment (FDI) are at the core of globalisation. Analytical work has recently been developed by OECD in order to explore the nature of these links in quantitative terms. This report combines the previous more technical work developed over the last...
  N° 2000/01   07 Jan 2000 Click to Access:  Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions
Nam-Hoon Kang, Sara Johansson
This paper examines recent trends and drivers of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) which grew six-fold in 1991-98 and now account for more than 85% of foreign direct investment. They are prompted by a range of factors, including excess capacity and increased competition in...
  N° 2000/02   22 Mar 2000 Click to Access:  The Contribution of Information and Communication Technology to Output Growth
Paul Schreyer
This paper deals with the contribution of information and communication technology (ICT) to economic growth and to labour and multi-factor productivity. It uses a well-established growth accounting framework to assess the role of ICTs as capital inputs and the contribution of these capital...
  N° 2000/03   30 May 2000 Click to Access:  High-Growth Firms and Employment
Paul Schreyer
This STI Working Paper deals with this group of rapidly expanding firms. It does so by placing the discussion into a context of entrepreneurship, arguing that there are two main aspects to this notion: one of business start-ups and market entry, and another one of innovation. Evidence is based...
  N° 2000/04   14 June 2000 Click to Access:  The Impact of Public R&D Expenditure on Business R&D
Dominique Guellec, Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie
This document attempts to quantify the aggregate net effect of government funding on business R&D in 17 OECD Member countries over the past two decades. Grants, procurement, tax incentives and direct performance of research (in public laboratories or universities) are the major policy tools in...
  N° 2000/05   07 July 2000 Click to Access:  International Strategic Alliances
Nam-Hoon Kang, Kentaro Sakai
This paper reviews recent trends in international strategic alliances, which have grown more than fivefold between 1989 and 1999 paralleling the increase in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As). The paper covers frequency, type, purpose and geographical patterns of international...
  N° 2000/06   08 Sep 2000 Click to Access:  Biotechnology Statistics in OECD Member Countries
Brigitte van Beuzekom
This document reflects recent efforts made by the OECD to obtain an accurate assessment of the current state of biotechnology statistics in OECD Member and Observer countries. The authors are grateful to Statistics Canada for the funding that made this project possible.The inventory was...
  N° 2000/07   19 Dec 2000 Click to Access:  The Internationalisation of Venture Capital Activity in OECD Countries
Günseli Baygan, Michael Freudenberg
Venture capital has grown significantly in most OECD countries during the 1990s, and is increasingly associated with improved firm performance in terms of survival rates, innovation and growth. This paper compares venture capital activity across OECD countries by taking into account...
  N° 2001/01   09 Jan 2001 Click to Access:  Economic Growth and Technological Change
Bart Verspagen
This paper provides a perspective from evolutionary economic theory on recent growth differences in the OECD area. The empirical analysis contained in the paper offers a number of findings. First, the United States seems to be diverging from the other OECD countries, while the latter are still,...
  N° 2001/02   09 May 2001 Click to Access:  Linking Entrepreneurship to Growth
David B. Audretsch, Roy Thurik
This paper provides a link between the degree of entrepreneurial activity in a country and the growth performance. While a recent wave of empirical evidence suggests that the extent to which countries have shifted towards an increased role of entrepreneurship varies considerably across...
  N° 2001/03   14 June 2001 Click to Access:  R&D and Productivity Growth
Dominique Guellec, Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie
This study investigates the long-term effects of various types of R&D on multifactor productivity growth, which is the spillover effect of R&D. Econometric estimates are conducted on a panel of 16 OECD countries, over the period 1980-98. All results are averages over countries and time, and...
  N° 2001/04   18 June 2001 Click to Access:  Productivity Growth in ICT-producing and ICT-using Industries
Dirk Pilat, Frank C. Lee
This paper examines the roles of the ICT-producing sector and of key ICT-using industries in overall productivity growth in OECD countries. The ICT-producing sector provides a considerable contribution to productivity growth in several OECD countries and explains some of the pick-up in...
  N° 2001/06   13 Sep 2001 Click to Access:  Biotechnology Statistics in OECD Member Countries
Brigitte van Beuzekom
This document reflects recent efforts made by the OECD to obtain an accurate assessment of the current state of biotechnology statistics in OECD Member and Observer countries.This project was realised thanks in large part to a voluntary contribution provided by the Government of Canada. The...
  N° 2001/05   10 Oct 2001 Click to Access:  The Renewal of the Old Economy
Bart van Ark
This paper presents international comparisons of the contribution of information and communication technology (ICT) to output and productivity growth during the 1990s. It makes a distinction between ICT-producing manufacturing and service industries, intensive ICT-using manufacturing and...
  N° 2001/07   25 Oct 2001 Click to Access:  ICT Investment and Economic Growth in the 1990s
Alessandra Colecchia, Paul Schreyer
Investment in information technologies has by no means been confined to the United States and yet, average European or Japanese growth experience has been quite different. The paper compares the impact of ICT capital accumulation on output growth in Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany,...
  N° 2002/16   16 Jan 2002 Click to Access:  Using Patents Data to Map Technical Change in Health-Related Areas
Frank Lichtenberg, Suchin Virabhak
This document reports findings regarding the use of patents data for understanding various dimensions of technical change in health-related areas. Reported counts are based on "Triadic Patent Families", that is sets of patents covering a single invention, filed altogether in Europe, Japan and...
  N° 2002/12   16 Jan 2002 Click to Access:  Use of Plant-Level Micro-Data for the Evaluation of SME Innovation Policy in Japan
Kazuyuki Motohashi
Japan’s SME policies have reached a turning point. The traditional policy of "lifting up SMEs" has been changed into a more pro-competitive policy to foster entrepreneurship and innovation in SMEs. This paper evaluates this policy and the new innovation promotion schemes initiated by METI...
  N° 2002/01   18 Jan 2002 Click to Access:  Impact of the Adoption of Advanced Information and Communication Technologies on Firm Performance in the Canadian Manufacturing Sector
John R. Baldwin, David Sabourin
This paper investigates the evolution of the industrial structure in the Canadian manufacturing sector and its relationship to technological change by examining the take-up of advanced technologies and how it is related to the stochastic growth process in the plant population. Its framework is...
  N° 2002/04   15 Feb 2002 Click to Access:  Global Industrial Restructuring
Kentaro Sakai
Global industrial restructuring in the current era is characterised by an increase in cross-border strategic alliances, mergers and acquisitions (M&As) and other types of business networking. This presents new international opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)....
  N° 2002/03   27 Feb 2002 Click to Access:  The Importance of Entry to Canadian Manufacuring, with an Appendix on Measurement Issues
John R. Baldwin, Desmond Beckstead, Andrée Girard
Understanding the importance of the dynamic entry process in the Canadian economy involves measuring size of entry. The main purpose of this paper is to summarise the information that we have on the amount of entry in Canada.The paper also fulfils another purpose. Some studies have focused on...
  N° 2002/02   27 Feb 2002 Click to Access:  Plant Turnover and Productivity Growth in Canadian Manufacturing
John R. Baldwin, Wulong Gu
Entry is important because new firms and new plants provide an important source of competition to incumbents. They are a source of new products and technologies. In this paper, we outline the size of the turnover in plants that have entered and exited the Canadian manufacturing sector over each...
  N° 2002/05   01 Mar 2002 Click to Access:  The OECD Technology Concordance (OTC)
Daniel K.N. Johnson
While patent data are now readily available for most nations, these data are still of minimal use for economic analysis due to their mode of presentation. Patents are recorded for administrative purposes using the International Patent Classification (IPC) system, which categorises inventions by...
  N° 2002/07   06 Mar 2002 Click to Access:  Statistics on New Enterprises, Entrepreneurs and Survival of Start-Ups
Peter Bøegh Nielsen
The paper describes the methodology elaborated and used by Statistics Denmark to produce statistics on new enterprises. Statistics Denmark has developed its statistical monitoring of new enterprises based solely on the use of administrative registers. The paper also lists the indicators...
  N° 2002/06   07 Mar 2002 Click to Access:  The Role of Exit and Entry in Australian Productivity Growth
Dean Parham
The central aim of this paper is to report findings from an Australian study of the influence of firm dynamics on labour productivity growth during Australia’s productivity surge in the 1990s. Like studies of other countries, the within-firm effects are found to dominate net entry and exit...
  N° 2002/14   05 Apr 2002 Click to Access:  Organisational Change and Firm Performance
Marian Murphy
Organisational change encompasses production processes (quality management, lean production, business re-engineering), management approaches (teamwork, training, flexible work and compensation) and external relations (outsourcing, customer relations, networking). Performance improvements from...
  N° 2002/11   22 Apr 2002 Click to Access:  Competition Policy and Innovation
Carl Shapiro
This paper seeks to improve understanding of the links between innovation and competition policy. It is intended to help OECD Member countries identify ways in which they can design and implement policies that best promote innovation while protecting against anti-competitive behaviour. Special...
  N° 2002/15   22 May 2002 Click to Access:  Broadband Infrastructure Deployment
Atsushi Umino
The potential economic importance of electronic commerce, and the role of broadband in supporting e-commerce, has increasingly led governments to place emphasis on facilitating access to broadband networks. To a large extent the emphasis has been on a range of policies aimed at supporting...
  N° 2002/10   17 July 2002 Click to Access:  ICT Skills and Employment
Vladimir López-Bassols
Given their role in the current transformation of advanced economies, information and communication technologies (ICTs) offer the promise of new business and employment opportunities along with higher productivity gains, but also make new demands on skills. OECD countries are thus confronted...
  N° 2002/09   09 Aug 2002 Click to Access:  Taxation, SMEs and Entrepreneurship
Duanjie Chen, Frank C. Lee, Jack M. Mintz
This paper discusses the implications of tax policy for the growth of entrepreneurship and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some existing features of OECD tax systems are biased against entrepreneurs and small firms. For instance, double taxation of distributed corporate profits can...
  N° 2002/08   20 Aug 2002 Click to Access:  Linking Innovation to Productivity Growth Using Two Waves of the Community Innovation Survey
George van Leeuwen
Using two waves of the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) for the Netherlands, this paper integrates recent lines of research to estimate the contribution of innovation to manufacturing multifactor productivity (MFP) growth. The model uses CIS data to control for the complementarity between...
  N° 2002/13   13 Sep 2002 Click to Access:  The Contribution of ICT to Production Efficiency in Italy
Carlo Milana, Alessandro Zeli
This paper examines the impact of information and communications technologies (ICTs) on technical production efficiency in a wide range of Italian industries. Technical efficiency, defined as the firm’s distance from the production efficiency frontier, is one important component of...
  N° 2003/02   28 Jan 2003 Click to Access:  Venture Capital Policies in Korea
Günseli Baygan
The Korean venture capital market has grown dramatically in recent years, starting from a negligible base in the early 1990s and almost tripling between 1998 and 2001. Korea now ranks among the leading OECD countries in venture capital investment as a share of GDP. Korea weathered the severe...
  N° 2003/01   28 Jan 2003 Click to Access:  Venture Capital Policy Review
Günseli Baygan
Despite high levels of private equity financing in the United Kingdom, relatively little funding is reaching small, technology-based companies. Institutional investors, both domestic and foreign, remain focused on later-stage deals. The United Kingdom has implemented several policy initiatives...
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