OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard

English
Frequency :
Biennial
ISSN :
2072-5345 (online)
ISSN :
1562-983X (print)
DOI :
10.1787/20725345
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OECD’s biennial statistical publication that brings together over 200 figures to help examine emerging policy issues in science and technology such as: the international mobility of researchers and scientists, the growth of the information economy, innovation by regions and industries, innovation strategies by companies, the internationalisation of research, the changing role of multinational enterprises, and new patterns in trade competitiveness and productivity.

Other Versions: Database
Also available in: French
 
OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2015

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OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2015

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Author(s):
OECD
19 Oct 2015
Pages :
260
ISBN :
9789264239784 (PDF) ; 9789264246256 (EPUB) ; 9789264246225 (HTML) ; 9789264239777 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/sti_scoreboard-2015-en

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Science, technology and innovation foster competitiveness, productivity and growth. Over 200 indicators in the OECD Science, Technology and Industry (STI) Scoreboard show how OECD and major non-OECD economies are starting to move beyond the crisis, increasingly investing in the future.
The charts and underlying data in the OECD STI Scoreboard 2015 are available for download and selected indicators contain additional data expanding the time and country coverage of the print edition.

Also available in: French
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Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Table of Contents

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  • Foreword

    The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2015 draws on the latest internationally comparable data to uncover the strengths of the OECD and other leading economies, and examine current challenges to overcoming the effects of recent financial and economic crises and improving the well-being of societies.

  • Reader's guide
  • Executive summary

    Downturns tend to accelerate structural change and create new challenges and opportunities. The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2015 shows how OECD countries and major non-OECD economies are starting to move beyond the crisis, increasingly investing in the future.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Knowledge economies: Trends and features

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    • The growth and jobs challenge

      The world today continues to feel the effects of the economic downturn seven years after the start of the crisis. In 2010, strong productivity growth signalled the start of a global recovery, however the pace of recovery has been unusually weak and labour productivity growth in the OECD area remains below pre-crisis levels. The failure to achieve a stronger cyclical upswing has had very real costs in terms of foregone employment, stagnant living standards in advanced economies, less vigorous development in some emerging economies, and rising inequality nearly everywhere (OECD, 2015a). The BRIICS (Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, the People’s Republic of China and South Africa) economies were affected by the global slowdown to a lesser extent, with productivity growing at over 6% in 2009-14, compared to 1% in the OECD area. In China, GDP per employee grew at around 9% a year, compared to the 11% annual growth enjoyed in 2002-07.

    • The new geography of innovation and growth

      Foreign direct investment (FDI) may provide recipient countries with access to new technologies and generate employment opportunities and knowledge spillovers for domestic firms. Since the mid-1990s, foreign direct investment (FDI) has grown at a faster pace than international trade in goods and services. Although most flows still take place within the OECD, the landscape has changed dramatically in the past decade. Until 2003, around 95% of FDI outflows originated from OECD countries, but over the past decade their share has fallen below 80% owing to the spectacular rise in overseas investment by emerging economies. The impact of the 2008 crisis on FDI flows varied across countries. Non-OECD economies overall experienced a sharp reduction (about 20%) in inward and outward flows in 2009, followed by an immediate recovery. In the OECD area as a whole, inward and outward flows fell in 2008 and still remained short of pre‑crisis levels in 2013, despite a smooth recovery in 2011. The OECD share of total world outward FDI decreased following 2011, while the share of inward flows remained relatively stable.

    • Science and innovation today

      As with other types of investment, expenditures in R&D and innovation are pro-cyclical – they are positively related to an economy’s level of activity. R&D financed by the business sector is particularly affected by the business cycle and reflects changes in financing constraints and aggregate demand. The major drop in GDP and business R&D in 2008-09 was partly balanced by a boost in government-funded R&D. From 2010, business-funded R&D has recovered, while in turn direct government funding of R&D has declined, reflecting budget consolidation policies. Since 1985, the components of R&D have evolved differently. Across all sectors, applied research and experimental development have more than doubled in real terms since 1985. These account for most of R&D expenditures (21% and 62% of GERD, respectively in 2013, but more so in China at 11% and 85%). Basic research (17%) has nearly quadrupled over the period, driven by sustained growth in R&D within higher education. Behind these general trends lie diverse sectoral patterns, suggesting increasing sectoral specialisation in the types of R&D performed. This picture may hint at an increasing gap between basic research and the development of new products and processes.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Investing in knowledge, talent and skills

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    • Investment in knowledge

      OECD, based on OECD (2014), Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris. See chapter notes.

    • Higher education and basic research

      OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators Database, www.oecd.org/sti/msti.htm, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Science and engineering

      OECD, Education Database, July 2015. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • Doctorate holders

      OECD calculations based on OECD data collection on Careers of Doctorate Holders 2014, www.oecd.org.sti/cdh; and other international sources, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Researchers

      OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators Database, www.oecd.org/sti/msti.htm, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Research excellence

      OECD and SCImago Research Group (CSIC) (2015), Compendium of Bibliometric Science Indicators 2014, http://oe.cd/scientometrics. See chapter notes.

    • Organisational capital

      OECD calculations based on the Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) Database; OECD, Structural Analysis (STAN) Database, http://oe.cd/stan and other national data sources, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Firm-specific training

      OECD calculations based on Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) Database; OECD, Structural Analysis (STAN) Database, http://oe.cd/stan and national sources, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Public sector intangibles

      OECD calculations based on Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) Database; OECD, Structural Analysis (STAN) Database, http://oe.cd/stan and national sources, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Skills in the digital economy

      OECD, based on Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) Database, June 2015. See chapter notes.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Connecting to knowledge

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    • International mobility of highly skilled individuals

      OECD calculations based on OECD (2014), Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing, Paris. See chapter notes.

    • Scientists on the move

      OECD calculations based on Scopus Custom Data, Elsevier, Version 4.2015, http://oe.cd/scientometrics, June 2015. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • Excellence in scientific collaboration

      OECD and SCImago Research Group (CSIC) (2015), Compendium of Bibliometric Science Indicators 2014, http://oe.cd/scientometrics. See chapter notes.

    • Open access to research

      OECD calculations based on Scopus Custom Data, Elsevier, version 4.2015; and on Scopus journal title list, accessed May 2015, http://oe.cd/scientometrics, June 2015. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • Research across borders

      OECD, Research and Development Statistics Database, www.oecd.org/sti/rds, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Science and technology links

      OECD, STI Micro-data Lab: Intellectual Property Database, http://oe.cd/ipstats, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Inventions across borders

      OECD, STI Micro-data Lab: Intellectual Property Database, http://oe.cd/ipstats, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • International markets for knowledge

      OECD, STI Micro-data Lab: Intellectual Property Database, http://oe.cd/ipstats, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Open innovation

      International comparability may be limited due to differences in innovation survey methodologies and country-specific response patterns. European countries follow harmonised survey guidelines with the Community Innovation Survey. See www.oecd.org/sti/inno-stats.htm for more details.

    • Collaboration on innovation

      International comparability may be limited due to differences in innovation survey methodologies and country-specific response patterns. European countries follow harmonised survey guidelines with the Community Innovation Survey. See www.oecd.org/sti/inno-stats.htm for more details.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Unlocking innovation in firms

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    • Business R&D

      OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators Database, www.oecd.org/sti/msti.htm, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Top R&D players

      OECD, STI Micro-data Lab: Intellectual Property Database, http://oe.cd/ipstats, June 2015. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • ICT and innovation

      OECD, ANBERD Database, www.oecd.org/sti/anberd, and Research and Development Statistics Database, www.oecd.org/sti/rds, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Mixed modes of innovation

      International comparability may be limited due to differences in innovation survey methodologies and country-specific response patterns. European countries follow harmonised survey guidelines with the Community Innovation Survey. See www.oecd.org/sti/inno-stats.htm for more details.

    • New-to-market innovation

      International comparability may be limited due to differences in innovation survey methodologies and country-specific response patterns. European countries follow harmonised survey guidelines with the Community Innovation Survey. See www.oecd.org/sti/inno-stats.htm for more details.

    • The IP bundle

      OECD, STI Micro-data Lab: Intellectual Property Database, http://oe.cd/ipstats, June 2015; EPO and JPO annual reports, 2012-14. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • Registered designs

      OECD, STI Micro-data Lab: Intellectual Property Database, http://oe.cd/ipstats, June 2015. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • R&D tax incentives

      OECD, R&D Tax Incentive Indicators, www.oecd.org/sti/rd-tax‑stats.htm and Main Science and Technology Indicators Database, www.oecd.org/sti/msti.htm, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Demand and support for innovation

      International comparability may be limited due to differences in innovation survey methodologies and country-specific response patterns. European countries follow harmonised survey guidelines with the Community Innovation Survey. See www.oecd.org/sti/inno-stats.htm for more details.

    • Policy environment for innovation

      OECD (2015b), Entrepreneurship at a Glance 2015, OECD Publishing, Paris. See chapter notes.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Competing in the global economy

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    • R&D specialisation

      OECD calculations based on the ANBERD Database, www.oecd.org/sti/anberd, Annual National Accounts Database, Main Science and Technology Indicators Database, www.oecd.org/sti/msti.htm, and Research and Development Statistics Database, www.oecd.org/sti/rds, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • E-business uptake

      OECD, ICT Database; Eurostat, Information Society Statistics Database and national sources, July 2015. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • Start-up dynamics

      OECD calculations based on the DynEmp v.2 Database, preliminary data, www.oecd.org/sti/dynemp.htm, July 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Creative by design

      OECD, STI Micro-data Lab: Intellectual Property Database, http://oe.cd/ipstats, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Technological advantage

      OECD, STI Micro-data Lab: Intellectual Property Database, http://oe.cd/ipstats, June 2015. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • Participation in global value chains

      OECD, Trade in Value Added (TiVA) Database, http://oe.cd/tiva, June 2015. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • Trade and jobs

      OECD, Inter-Country Input-Output (ICIO) Database, http://oe.cd/icio, June 2015; World Input-Output Database (WIOD), www.wiod.org, July 2014. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • Service-manufacturing linkages

      OECD, Trade in Value Added (TiVA) Database, http://oe.cd/tiva, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Industry global value chains

      OECD, Trade in Value Added (TiVA) Database, http://oe.cd/tiva, June 2015. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • Global consumption patterns

      OECD, Trade in Value Added (TiVA) Database, http://oe.cd/tiva, June 2015. See chapter notes.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Empowering society with science and technology

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    • Enabling connectivity

      OECD, Broadband Portal, www.oecd.org/sti/broadband/oecdbroadbandportal.htm, July 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Online devices and applications

      OECD, based on Eurostat, Information Society Statistics Database and national sources, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Digital natives

      OECD, PISA 2012 Database, June 2015.

    • Internet users

      OECD, ICT Database; Eurostat, Information Society Statistics Database; ITU, World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database and national sources, July 2015. See chapter notes.

    • User sophistication

      OECD, ICT Database; Eurostat, Information Society Statistics Database, July 2015. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • E-consumers across borders

      OECD, based on Eurostat, Information Society Statistics Database, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • E-government use

      OECD, ICT Database; Eurostat, Information Society Statistics Database; and ITU, World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database, July 2015. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • R&D for social challenges

      OECD, Research and Development Statistics Database, www.oecd.org/sti/rds, June 2015. See chapter notes.

    • Enabling technologies

      OECD, STI Micro-data Lab: Intellectual Property Database, http://oe.cd/ipstats, June 2015. StatLink contains more data. See chapter notes.

    • Public perceptions of science and technology

      This is an experimental indicator. International comparability may be limited.

    • Data sources
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