OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard

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OECD’s biennial statistical publication that brings together over 200 figures to help examine emerging policy issues in science and technology such as: the international mobility of researchers and scientists, the growth of the information economy, innovation by regions and industries, innovation strategies by companies, the internationalisation of research, the changing role of multinational enterprises, and new patterns in trade competitiveness and productivity.

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OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2011

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20 Sep 2011
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This tenth edition of the OECD Science, Technology and Industry (STI) Scoreboard builds on the OECD’s 50 years of indicator development to present major world trends in knowledge and innovation. It analyses a wide set of indicators of science, technology, globalisation and industrial performance in OECD and major non-OECD countries (notably Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa) and includes some experimental indicators that provide insight into new areas of policy interest.

For more information about the OECD STI Scoreboard, see www.oecd.org/sti/scoreboard.

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  • Foreword
    The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2011 draws on the latest internationally comparable data to explore the challenges faced by OECD and other leading economies as repercussions from the recent financial and economic crises continue to be felt. It presents indicators traditionally used to monitor developments in science, technology, innovation and industry, and complements them with experimental indicators that provide new insights into areas of policy interest.
  • Acknowledgments
    This volume is the result of a collective effort by the Economic Analysis and Statistics Division (EAS) of the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry (DSTI), under the guidance of Alessandra Colecchia, with contributions from Laudeline Auriol, Brigitte van Beuzekom, Catherine Bignon, Agnès Cimper, Hélène Dernis, Rebecca Freeman, Fernando Galindo-Rueda, Chrystyna Harpluk, Pedro Herrera-Gimenez, Sandrine Kergroach, Elif Köksal-Oudot, Guillaume Kpodar, Vladimir Lopez-Bassols, Valentine Millot, Toshiyuki Misu, Pierre Montagnier, Vincenzo Spiezia, Mariagrazia Squicciarini, Julien Vavasseur, Fabien Verger, Colin Webb, Bo Werth, Norihiko Yamano and Shiguang Zhu. The contributions of Marcos de la Torre (EPO) and Carmen López-Illescas (CSIC), while on secondment to EAS, were greatly appreciated. Brigitte van Beuzekom supervised the preparation of statistics and figures. Andrew Wyckoff provided overall guidance and comments.
  • Reader's Guide
  • Executive Summary
    Today, the world’s economies are facing some extraordinary challenges. While the effects of the recent economic downturn are still being felt, new pressures are stretching many governments’ ability to instigate a recovery and national debt levels and unemployment remain high. The pace and scale of globalisation is unprecedented. Its distinctive features are increasing international trade, deepening economic integration, especially in emerging economies, and greater geographic fragmentation of production processes generating ever more complex global value chains. In this new geography of growth, international competition from new players is eroding the lead of more established economies. Environmental pressures challenge the sustainability of development models. Longer life expectancy is putting a greater strain on the capability of health systems to meet the needs of an ageing population.
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Knowledge Economies: Trends and Features

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    • Sources of growth
      Today’s world faces some extraordinary challenges and the effects of the economic downturn will be felt by our societies for years to come. A traditional measure used to gauge nations’ welfare is gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Changes in this measure can result from changes in labour productivity (GDP per hours worked) and labour utilisation (hours worked per person employed and employment per capita). Slowing labour productivity was already eroding growth performance prior to the crisis, and data for 2007-09 show the effect of the downturn on labour and capital. In 2010 widespread growth signalled the start of a global recovery. However, the pace of recovery varies among OECD countries and unemployment remains high in most. This condition creates an imperative for countries to find new and sustainable sources of growth.
    • The new geography of growth
      Foreign direct investment (FDI) provides recipient countries with access to new technologies and generates knowledge spillovers for domestic firms and additional investment in research and development (R&D). In the last 15 years FDI flows have tripled. FDI inflows to Europe still exceed those to the rest of the world, but FDI flows to China and the rest of South-East Asia have leapt from an average of about USD 50 billion a year in 1995-99 to about USD 150 billion a year in the latest period. The United States remains the biggest recipient and investor, with China set to become the second largest FDI recipient.
    • The changing landscape of innovation
      R&D (research and development) expenditure is an investment aimed at new knowledge, products or processes. Funding may come from government or business. Government-funded R&D aims mainly at producing new fundamental knowledge or satisfying social needs such as health or defence and is not expected to affect productivity as currently measured. Business-funded R&D is typically oriented towards new processes and new products and is expected to increase productivity when successful. It is normally mildly pro-cyclical, i.e. it is affected by the business cycle, as it is subject to financing constraints (the availability of cash limits R&D expenditures, as high risk and little collateral make financial markets reluctant to fund R&D). The most recent data show that trademark activity has been strongly affected by the economic crisis, with a marked drop in finance- and insurance-related trademarks at the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) from mid-2007. Goods and other services trademark activity turned down with the cycle and then up with the cycle at the beginning of 2009.
    • Innovation today
      New indicators on trademarks point to large numbers of incremental and marketing innovations and suggest that countries perform both technological and non-R&D-based innovation. Countries with a large manufacturing sector or an ICT specialisation have a greater propensity to patent than to "trademark". Countries with a large services sector tend to engage more in trademark protection. Countries in the process of catching-up have a lower propensity to innovate or to seek protection for their innovations (via patents or trademarks) than OECD countries.
    • The challenges ahead
      The gains from growth, while distributed unevenly around the world, have been dramatic. Over the past 150 years life expectancy increased by around 30 years in most regions, including some of the world’s least developed. The growth dynamic that has yielded these improvements in living standards has imposed substantial costs on the physical environment on which human well-being ultimately depends. It is increasingly apparent that the current use of natural resources could put higher living standards and even conventionally measured growth at risk. Without decisive action, energy-related emissions of CO2 will double by 2050. Efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, such as the Kyoto Protocol, will be less effective in reducing global emissions of GHG if countries with emission commitments source their carbon-intensive production activities from economies without such commitments, particularly if production in the latter countries is GHG-intensive.
    • Knowledge Economies - Notes
    • Knowledge Economies - References
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Building Knowledge

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    • New doctorate graduates
      Doctoral graduates are key players for research and innovation. They have been specifically trained to conduct research and are considered the best qualified for the creation and diffusion of scientific knowledge.
    • Career of doctorate holders
      An economy’s capacity to draw human resources into research is the basis for creating new knowledge and advancing economic activity. Factors that are likely to influence career choices of doctoral graduates include stability, earnings and motivation.
    • Science and technology occupations
      Human resources in science and technology (HRST) play a key role in innovation. In most OECD countries, they represented more than a quarter of total employment in 2010. The share was over 40% in Luxembourg, Sweden, Denmark and Switzerland; in India and Indonesia, HRST workers accounted for less than 10% of total employment. The split between professionals and technicians differs across countries.
    • Researchers
      In 2009, more than 4.2 million researchers were engaged in R&D in the OECD area, about 7.6 researchers per 1 000 employees, a significant increase from 6.6 per 1 000 in 1999. The five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), Japan, Korea and New Zealand employed more than ten researchers per 1 000 employees.
    • R&D expenditure
      Expenditure on research and development (R&D) is one of the most widely used measures of innovation inputs. R&D intensity (R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP) is used as an indicator of an economy’s relative degree of investment in generating new knowledge. Several countries have adopted "targets" for this indicator to help focus policy decisions and public funding. Israel has the highest R&D intensity, with gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) in excess of 4% of gross domestic product (GDP). The OECD average stands at 2.3%. The United States accounts for 41% of OECD-area GERD, followed by Japan with 15% and Germany with 8%. China’s domestic expenditure on R&D is the equivalent of 12% of total OECD GERD; it is therefore the world’s third largest R&D performer.
    • Higher education and basic research
      Most basic research is performed in universities and in public research organisations, and public support is crucial. Total higher education spending on R&D (HERD) accounts for 0.4% of GDP in the OECD area, a share that has increased in most countries over the last decade. Sweden has the highest research intensity in the higher education sector at 0.9% of GDP. Denmark and Portugal have nearly doubled their HERD intensity over the decade.
    • Business R&D
      Business enterprise expenditure on research and development (BERD) is considered important for innovation and economic growth. In OECD countries, business R&D accounts for the bulk of R&D in terms of both funding and performance. Business R&D reached 1.6% of OECD GDP in 2008, up slightly from 1.5% in 1999.
    • Investment in ICT
      Investment in physical capital is important for growth. It is a way to expand and renew the capital stock and enable new technologies to enter the production process.
    • Building Knowledge - Notes
    • Building Knowledge - References
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Connecting to Knowledge

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    • Public-private cross-funding of R&D
      There is a complex interplay between the public and private sectors in the funding and performance of R&D. Governments choose among various tools to leverage business sector R&D. Traditionally, they fund R&D activities directly via grants or procurement. More than 15% of business R&D (BERD) is funded directly by government in the Russian Federation, South Africa, Spain, Hungary and Turkey. In the OECD area, the government funds nearly 7% of total BERD, down from nearly 9% in 1999.
    • International funding of R&D
      Funding of business enterprise research and development (BERD) may be national or foreign. It may originate from private business, public institutions (government and higher education), or international organisations. Research and development (R&D) funding from abroad includes, for instance, R&D performed by affiliates of foreign-owned companies, R&D undertaken under contract on behalf of companies based abroad or research grants from international organisations. On average, R&D funding from abroad plays quite an important role in the funding of business R&D. In the EU, it represented around 10% of total business enterprise R&D in 2008. The weight of foreign multinationals in the economy and in the domestic production of technology appears to matter. For Austria, Ireland, the Slovak Republic and the United Kingdom, funds from abroad represented 20% or more of total business enterprise R&D.
    • Science links
      Publications in top journals provide a measure of "qualityadjusted" research output. Switzerland has the highest rate of high-quality publications on a per capita basis among OECD and BRIICS (Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, China, South Africa) countries, followed by Sweden and Denmark. In absolute numbers, the United States is the leading producer of publications in top journals, followed by the United Kingdom. If total publications are considered, independently of quality, the United States remains the leader but China takes the second position. The share of emerging economy publications in the world total is rising fast although the percentage published in top quartile journals is below the world average.
    • Technology-science linkages
      The degree to which applied technological developments, in the form of patented inventions, are linked to basic science is difficult to determine. However, most patent applications include a list of references – citations – to earlier patents and to non-patent literature (NPL), e.g. scientific papers, that set the boundaries of patents’ claims for novelty, inventive activity and industrial applicability. References are added by the applicant or the patent examiner to reflect the "prior art" that inventions have built upon. Backward citations to NPL can show how close a patented invention is to scientific knowledge, whereas forward patent citations can show the importance of a patent for the development of other technologies.
    • International mobility
      Higher education and research systems have become more internationalised over the past decades. The internationalisation of higher education can be gauged by the international mobility of students and that of research systems by internationally mobile holders of doctorates. During their studies and afterwards, the latter contribute to the advancement of research in the host country. When returning home, they bring back new competences and connections with international research networks.
    • Mobility at the workplace
      Interaction and learning within firms enable human resources in science and technology (HRST) to share information, challenge existing patterns, and experiment and collaborate to improve products and processes. "Brain circulation" across jobs, firms and sectors of activity can stimulate knowledge transfer, application of knowledge to new problems, and lead to the adoption of best practices, greater openness, creativity and innovation. It may also involve a loss of human capital for companies that invest in developing their workers’ skills.
    • Innovation and knowledge flows
      Innovation is a complex process and often involves many actors and linkages. One way to capture its systemic dimension is to examine which information sources firms use for their innovation activities. Internal sources are often reported as the most important for innovation, but in some countries external market sources predominate. Institutional sources play a much smaller role: generally, less than 10% of innovating firms rank them as "highly important".
    • Collaboration in business value chains
      During 2006-08, in the great majority of countries, large firms were significantly more likely to collaborate on innovation than small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Among SMEs, the rate of collaboration is between 25% and 40% of innovative firms in half of the countries surveyed, but it varies widely for large firms. More than 70% of large innovative firms collaborated on innovation in Denmark, Slovenia, Finland, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Austria, while less than one-third did so in China, Brazil and Mexico.
    • International collaboration on innovation
      Collaboration with foreign partners can play an important role in the innovation process by allowing firms to gain access to a broader pool of resources and knowledge at lower cost and to share the risks. It can take a variety of forms and levels of interaction ranging from simple one-way information flows to highly interactive and formal arrangements.
    • Technology flows
      Technology receipts from patents and licences and payments for R&D services are the main source of information on disembodied technology diffusion and indicate the internationalisation of technology flows.
    • Connecting to Knowledge - Notes
    • Connecting to Knowledge - References
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Targeting New Growth Areas

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    • Government funding of R&D
      Public policy can play an important role in orienting innovation efforts so that they help address domestic and global challenges. Government R&D budgets (GBAORD) provide an indication of the relative importance of various socio-economic objectives, such as defence, health and the environment, in public R&D spending. In 2009, governments across the OECD invested the equivalent of nearly 0.75% of GDP in direct funding of R&D activities. R&D budgets as a percentage of GDP are largest in the the United States, followed by Finland, Iceland, Portugal and Korea, ranging from nearly 0.2% to 1.2%. In most countries, this indicator is up relative to pre-recession levels, reflecting both the use of stimulus packages to support R&D and the drop in GDP growth rates.
    • Health innovation
      OECD countries are faced with the health-care challenges of ageing populations and others, such as increasingly drug-resistant diseases and the risk of global pandemics. Innovation is a critical means of improving the capacity of health systems to address these problems while containing escalating costs. The public sector plays a significant role alongside business and non-profit organisations, by supporting R&D directly but also through the procurement of new treatments resulting from R&D. Government budget appropriations or outlays for R&D (GBAORD) indicate that direct government support of health-related R&D in OECD countries was about 0.1% of their combined GDP in 2008. The United States is by far the largest funder in both absolute and relative terms, at just over 0.3% of GDP spent on health R&D.
    • Environmental technologies
      Finding cleaner, affordable and reliable energy sources and promoting sustainable growth have become major preoccupations of countries around the world. To this end, governments support research, foster innovation and the use of new technologies in production, and encourage the creation of markets for and consumers’ uptake of "green" technologies.
    • Innovation and environmental
      Innovation can be a source of environmental benefits for the firm that introduces the innovation (as part of its production process) as well as for customers that purchase the innovation (as part of its end use). Firms introduce innovations in response to factors such as regulations, the availability of public support or (current or future) market demand. In most countries regulations (existing or future) are the main driver, followed by market demand from customers. In Sweden, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Finland, market demand is identified as the main driver of environmental innovations.
    • Broadband speed and prices
      Broadband prices have declined continuously over the past decade across the OECD area, while connection speeds have increased. Most OECD countries have at least one operator actively offering fibre-based, high-speed broadband connections, although these may be limited to certain geographical areas. Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) and fibre-tothe- building (FTTB) also enable symmetrical upload and download speeds, which permit new functionalities and better user experience for a range of online activities, such as sharing pictures, video conferencing or uploading content onto social-networking websites.
    • Fixed and wireless broadband
      Fixed broadband subscriptions in the OECD area reached 292 million in June 2010. Broadband has expanded every year since cable and DSL services were first launched in the mid-1990s. Subscriptions grew at an annual compound growth rate of 39.7% between 2000 and 2009. The largest growth over the last two years was in Mexico (46%), followed by Greece (33%), the Slovak Republic (23%) and Turkey (21%).
    • Access to broadband
      Households and individuals in many OECD countries are now accustomed to using broadband (high-speed) connections at home. At present, more than one household out of two has broadband Internet access in three-quarters of OECD countries. Korea has the largest share of households with a broadband connection via a computer or mobile phone (97%). In OECD countries the share ranges from 21% in Mexico to 97% in Korea, for an OECD average of approximately 62%.
    • Biotechnology R&D
      The economic, environmental and social impacts of advances in the life sciences create policy interest in relevant economic and innovation indicators of biotechnology
    • Targeting New Growth Areas - Notes
    • Targeting New Growth Areas - References
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Unleashing Innovation in Firms

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    • Mixed modes of innovation
      Firm-level innovation data reveal complementary strategies. The majority of innovative firms (both large firms and SMEs) introduce product or process innovations, as well as marketing/organisational innovations. This is true for firms in manufacturing and services.
    • Broader innovation
      Firms follow various innovation strategies and these are not always based on R&D. Collaboration is part of innovation processes whether firms perform R&D or not. In all countries R&D-active firms tend to collaborate more frequently on innovation (usually twice as much) than non- R&D-active firms. In Chile and Korea, R&D status does not seem to affect collaboration on innovation. In the United Kingdom, collaboration is embedded in innovation processes and over 50% of non-R&D-active firms engage in it. Policies that stimulate collaboration and network initiatives might affect the entire spectrum of innovative firms.
    • Trademarks
      Trademarks (TM) may serve as indicators of innovative and marketing activity, and may proxy non-technological innovations and innovation in services. Firms tend to register trademarks primarily in their home country. Trademarks registered by non domestic firms can be used as a measure of market penetration and may help understand the kind of products, whether goods or services, exported.
    • Public support to R&D
      SMEs play an important role in innovation. There are concerns that the recent economic crisis may have affected them disproportionally in terms of securing funding for R&D and other innovation-related activities. In some countries governments play a key role in funding R&D activities of SMEs. In most, between 40% and 80% of government-financed business expenditures in research and development (BERD) goes to SMEs, a figure that reaches over 90% in Estonia and Hungary. However, in larger countries such as the United Kingdom, France and the United States, the bulk of public support goes to large firms.
    • Tax incentives for business R&D
      Governments foster business research and development (R&D) with direct support via grants or procurement and fiscal incentives, such as R&D tax incentives. Today, 26 OECD governments use fiscal incentives to promote business expenditure on R&D, up from 12 in 1995 and 18 in 2004. Among those that do not (Germany, Finland, Sweden), some are discussing their introduction. Brazil, China, India, the Russian Federation, Singapore and South Africa also offer incentives for investment in R&D.
    • Entry, exit and survival
      The birth and death of new enterprises are key indicators of business dynamism. Birth rates reflect an important dimension of entrepreneurship: the capacity to start up entirely new businesses. Death rates can give policy makers an indication of the impact of downturns on businesses and show that running a business often also involves failure.
    • Access to capital
      Bank loans are an important source of financing for starting a new business or expanding an existing one. The World Economic Forum’s Global Competiveness Report, which collects data through executive opinion surveys, provides insight on individuals’ views on access to bank loans in different countries. The data show that bank financing became more difficult to obtain between 2007 and 2010 in all countries owing to the financial crisis.
    • Policy environment
      Entry and growth of new firms is important, as is their adaptability to changes in the economy and their ability to exit when necessary. New enterprises drive a large number of obsolete firms out of the market and often do not survive very long themselves. A policy environment that fosters the start-up and growth of new firms is essential for innovation to flourish.
    • Entrepreneurial talent and culture
      Entrepreneurship empowers people to take their future into their own hands, whether through self-employment or by creating a firm that employs other individuals. A country’s entrepreneurial activity ranges from self-employment to the creation of high-growth firms. While data is not available for all these types of entrepreneurs, selfemployment data is available and helps shed some light into the diversity of entrepreneurs in a country.
    • Unleashing Innovation in Firms - Notes
    • Unleashing Innovation in Firms - References
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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Competing in the Global Economy

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    • Employment
      With employment in manufacturing and construction being particularly badly hit during the recent crisis, the role of services in many OECD countries became even more significant. By 2009 services accounted for over 72% of OECD employment reaching about 80% in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and United States. Public services continue to be significant employers; the OECD average was about 30% in 2009 and reached over 35% in some countries, particularly in Scandinavia. Countries that still have a significant industrial or agricultural base (such as Poland, Slovenia and Turkey), inevitably rely less on services; however, services are still responsible for over half of their employment.
    • Services-manufacturing linkages
      Manufacturing production in many OECD economies has declined in recent decades so that, on average, services now account for about 70% of OECD GDP. In fact, in the United States and the United Kingdom, employment in manufacturing industries is now less than 10% of total employment. As part of this general decline, the scope and nature of manufacturing has changed so that what was once dominated by skilled trades and vocations, machine operators, assembly line workers, etc., now relies increasingly on service occupations and service inputs. This reflects the increasing use of technology in production, international sourcing of more sophisticated intermediate inputs and a range of social factors (such as the changing skill composition of populations).
    • Firm size and dynamics
      Business dynamics have a significant impact on an economy’s overall productivity growth, and this in turn affects a country’s ability to compete globally. There is mixed empirical evidence on the relation between firm size and business dynamics, but small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a key role in all countries and are significant generators of employment and income. In the OECD area, SMEs employ more than half of the private sector’s labour force. In the European Union, they account for over 99% of all enterprises. SMEs employing between 1 and 9 persons, also called micro firms, represent more than 80% of all firms in most OECD countries.
    • Sectoral specialisation
      An economy can be defined as "specialised" if a few sectors account for a relatively large share of the country’s GDP, whereas it is "diversified" if each of a relatively high number of sectors accounts for a small share of GDP. Industrial specialisation or diversification patterns relate to economies’ long-run productivity, resilience to a crisis, investment patterns, innovativeness and performance of firms and sectors. The Hannah-Kay (HK) diversification index captures a country’s full sectoral composition and accounts for the influence of larger sectors. A lower HK corresponds to rising sectoral specialisation. The concentration ratio (CR) index shows the share of value added accounted for by the economy’s top four sectors.
    • Foreign affiliates
      Foreign affiliates contribute to a host country’s international competitiveness through several channels. They provide access to new markets and new technologies for domestic suppliers and buyers, generate knowledge spillovers for domestic firms and typically invest a higher share of their revenues in R&D. Foreign affiliates are responsible for a large part of host countries’ employment, turnover and value added. The share of foreign-controlled employment in OECD countries ranged from close to 5% to 35% in 2008. In terms of value added, the foreign share is higher, partly because multinational enterprises are typically active in capital- and scale-intensive industries. Smaller countries such as the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic and Hungary have a stronger presence of foreign-owned firms; in addition, the presence of foreign affiliates has increased significantly in these countries during the last decade. Foreign affiliates account for a significantly smaller share of total activity in the United States and Italy.
    • Trade openness
      The relative impact of the economic crisis on international trade can be seen in a comparison of exports and imports as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) between 2008 and 2009. GDP was severely affected in many countries, but international trade suffered even more. After widespread increases in the trade-to-GDP ratio between 2000 and 2008, all OECD countries (except Iceland and Ireland) and the BRIICS (Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, China, South Africa) saw a drop in this ratio between 2008 and 2009, mostly owing to significant drops in trade in goods. In many countries it fell below the ratio recorded at the beginning of the decade.
    • Import content of exports
      The "import content of exports" measure (proposed by Hummels et al., 2001), provides an indication of the increasing importance of the international fragmentation of production processes. By linking OECD’s "harmonised" national input-output tables (which show countries’ interindustry transaction patterns) with bilateral trade by industry statistics, the value of imported intermediate goods and services subsequently embodied in exports can be estimated. While this highlights the imports required to meet the demand for exports, changes in the import content of exports can also reveal the evolution of domestic value added due to exporting activities.
    • R&D specialisation
      When comparing total business research and development (R&D) intensity (R&D expenditure relative to value added or gross domestic product) across countries it is important to take into account differences in their industrial structure. While there is significant variation in R&D intensity within sectors, some sector-specific patterns make it very difficult for a country to raise its R&D intensity significantly without fundamentally changing its industrial structure. An understanding of the extent to which structural differences can account for observed differences in overall business R&D intensity can be achieved by constructing an indicator that shows what a country’s total R&D intensity would be if it had the same industrial structure as the average for OECD countries.
    • Technology specialisation
      Patent documents contain several types of information (e.g. technical class code, title, abstract, claims, etc.) which are useful for classifying patents in particular fields and investigating the emergence and growth patterns of new technologies. The rise in patent applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) stabilised at an average rate of 5% in the 2000s. The increase was not evenly distributed across countries or technological fields. Since 2000, patenting in the information and communication technology (ICT) and nanotechnology sectors grew at a similar pace (respectively 3% and 4%), whereas biotechnology patenting showed an inverse trend (–4%).
    • E-commerce uptake
      In 2010, Internet and other e-commerce sales transactions averaged 13% of total turnover in countries for which data are available. Ireland, Norway and the Czech Republic reported the largest shares. In Ireland the share of e-commerce sales is almost twice the average.
    • Patenting firms
      Applicants in patent documents can be enterprises, organisations or persons. Business registers include information on enterprises and their main characteristics. By matching patent applicants’ names to enterprise names in business registers the patenting behaviour of firms can be linked to firm characteristics such as industrial sector, age and size. Matched patent and firm data can also review industries’ contribution to the development of key technologies, such as biotechnology and information and communication technology (ICT).
    • Innovative sectors
      A classification based on innovation can complement the established and widely used technology classification that is based on industry R&D intensities. By considering the more general scope of innovation it draws on sectors, particularly services, that do not undertake relatively high levels of formal R&D. Innovation surveys capture a broad range of innovation activities from product and process to marketing and organisational innovations and account for both innovation inputs and outputs.
    • Technology performance: quality
      Patent quality indicators try to capture both the technological and the economic value of innovations, and are typically based on patent citations, claims, patent renewals and patent family size. They are considered meaningful measures of research productivity and are found to be correlated with the social and private value of the patented inventions. The difference in average patent quality across firms is generally associated with the market evaluation of firms.
    • Technology performance: impact
      A number of indicators use information on the technological fields of patents based on the International Patent Classification (IPC) system and on the forward citations (citations a patent receives) and backward citations (patents and scientific papers a patent cites).
    • Competing in the Global Economy - Notes
    • Competing in the Global Economy - References
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