OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2011
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OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2011

This tenth edition of the OECD Science, Technology and Industry (STI) Scoreboard builds on the OECD’s 50 years of indicator development to present major world trends in knowledge and innovation. It analyses a wide set of indicators of science, technology, globalisation and industrial performance in OECD and major non-OECD countries (notably Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa) and includes some experimental indicators that provide insight into new areas of policy interest.

For more information about the OECD STI Scoreboard, see www.oecd.org/sti/scoreboard.

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Technology-science linkages You or your institution have access to this content

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OECD

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The degree to which applied technological developments, in the form of patented inventions, are linked to basic science is difficult to determine. However, most patent applications include a list of references – citations – to earlier patents and to non-patent literature (NPL), e.g. scientific papers, that set the boundaries of patents’ claims for novelty, inventive activity and industrial applicability. References are added by the applicant or the patent examiner to reflect the "prior art" that inventions have built upon. Backward citations to NPL can show how close a patented invention is to scientific knowledge, whereas forward patent citations can show the importance of a patent for the development of other technologies.
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