OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook

Frequency :
Biennial
ISSN :
1999-1428 (online)
ISSN :
2074-7187 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/19991428
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OECD’s biennial comprehensive review of key trends in science, technology and innovation policy in OECD countries. In addition to examining main trends across the OECD, the report delves into specific topics that are high on the agenda of innovation policy makers, such as the role of intellectual property rights and technology licensing markets in innovation performance, policies to enhance benefits of the globalisation of business R&D, human resources for science and technology, and the evaluation of innovation policy. While retaining its focus on developments in OECD countries, it also highlights key developments in a number of important non-member economies, including China, Russia and South Africa. A statistical annex provides up-to-date statistics on R&D funding, patents, researchers and other indicators of innovative performance.

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Also available in: French
 
OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2014

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Author(s):
OECD
Publication Date :
12 Nov 2014
Pages :
478
ISBN :
9789264222281 (PDF) ; 9789264204300 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/sti_outlook-2014-en

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The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2014 reviews key trends in science, technology and innovation (STI) policies, and performance in more than 45 economies, including OECD countries and major emerging economies. The report draws on the latest OECD work on science and innovation policy analysis and measurement.

Following an overview of the STI global landscape and policy trends, key policy issues are discussed across a series of thematic policy profiles. The third section examines individual STI country performances, along with the most recent national policy developments. These global and national policy trends are monitored by a unique international policy survey conducted by the OECD every two years.

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    Foreword

    The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2014 is the tenth in a biennial series designed to review key trends in science, technology and innovation (STI) in OECD countries and a number of important non-member economies: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, the People’s Republic of China, the Russian Federation and South Africa. Its aim is to inform policy makers responsible for STI policies, business representatives and analysts about recent and anticipated changes in the global patterns of science, technology and innovation and to understand current and possible future implications for national STI policies both at global and national level.

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    Acronyms
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    Executive summary

    The impact of the recession and the moderate pace of recovery on innovation and innovation policies has been considerable. At 1.6%, gross expenditure on R&D in OECD countries over 2008-12 was half the rate for the years 2001-08.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Overall innovation performance and policy trends

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      Reader's guide

      Innovation comes out of the activities of many diverse actors, businesses, multinational firms, start-ups, but also public research institutes or universities. These actors co-operate and compete with each other. Their activity is determined by the availability of financial and human resources and by demand from markets or for addressing environmental or societal challenges. Government plays a key role in dynamising and orienting this system, by influencing framework conditions and setting innovation policies. The ability of a country to generate and benefit from innovation depends primarily on this complex system. The STI Outlook attempts to reflect this complexity by analysing major trends in STI and STI policies. The diagram presented below is specific to the OECD STI Outlook 2014 and aims to help readers visualise the composition and working of the innovation system. It will be used to introduce each relevant section of the following chapter.

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      The future of science, technology and innovation policies

      This chapter describes recent developments and the outlook for science, technology and innovation (STI) and STI policies. As economic growth gains momentum, STI activities should increase. However, the recovery remains uneven. The crisis caused lasting damage to public finances, creating a new deal for STI policies, which must consider the risks and opportunities raised by the continuing globalisation of STI activities: global value chains and the international circulation of people and knowledge. Innovation should help address global, environmental and societal challenges and raise new policy challenges.This chapter is based on OECD work in science, technology, industry, education, innovation, migration, trade, environment, finance, tax systems, public governance and statistics. It draws on country responses to the OECD STI Outlook questionnaire 2014, a unique source of country-specific information on national innovation policies. While high-quality macroeconomic, competition, regulation, tax and labour market framework conditions matter for innovation, this chapter focuses on STI and entrepreneurship policies.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts STI policy profiles: Governance

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      National strategies for science, technology and innovation

      National strategies for science, technology and innovation (STI) serve several functions in government policy making. First, they articulate the government’s vision regarding the contribution of STI to their country’s social and economic development. Second, they set priorities for public investment in STI and identify the focus of government reforms (e.g. funding of university research, evaluation systems). They also mobilise STI actors around specific goals, such as energy, environmental issues or health, and may help steer investments of private actors and increasingly autonomous universities and public research institutes towards priority areas or technologies. Third, the elaboration of these strategies can engage stakeholders (the research community, funding agencies, business, civil society, regional and local governments) in broad consultations that will help building a common vision of the future and facilitate co-ordination within the innovation system.

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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/system-innovation_sti_outlook-2014-7-en
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      System innovation

      Interest in system innovation is motivated by the realisation that system-wide change is necessary to make economies socially, economically and environmentally sustainable. Although many national governments have put sustainability and green growth objectives at the centre of their economic development strategies, achieving this goal will require wide-ranging changes in their underlying economic, technological and social systems, from transport, water and energy systems to modes of consumption and waste management. Ensuring that socio-technical systems move towards greater sustainability is a major challenge for governments but also for civil society. At the core of the transition is a shift in governance structures that not only allows change to occur but also directs and orchestrates some of the changes. The smart city initiatives that mobilise technological and social innovations to make the production and consumption of a city’s goods and services more sustainable illustrate this point.

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      Strategic public/private partnerships

      For governments, public-private partnerships (PPPs) in science, technology and innovation can help make research and innovation policy more responsive to the changing nature of innovation and to social and global challenges. For business, partnering with public research can help solve problems, develop new markets or generate value through co-operation and co-production. Traditionally used for physical infrastructure, PPPs are increasingly popular in R&D and innovation policy because they are better adapted to some innovation goals or challenges than policy instruments such as subsidies or tax credits.

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      Impact assessment in STI policies

      Impact assessment (IA) is an important preoccupation of much evaluation in the STI policy field, as shown by country responses to the OECD STI Outlook policy questionnaire 2014 (). Through IA exercises, policy makers aim to better understand, identify and often quantify the causal relationships that link inputs (e.g. investments in R&D) to different actors (e.g. ministries, R&D agencies, firms) and to their impact on output and outcome measures (e.g. economic growth, improvements in health, environmental and living standards or broader societal changes). The rationales for such assessments include: to fine-tune and improve existing policy interventions; to inform spending priorities and focus future policy interventions on areas with the greatest expected impact; and to hold actors accountable for their performance and spending.

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      Comparative table of national STI strategies or plans, OECD countries and some major non-OECD economies, 2014

      National STI plan(s) or strategy

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts STI policy profiles: Globalisation of innovation policies

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      Attracting international science and technology investments by firms

      International investments have grown rapidly in recent decades owing to the rapid rise of global value chains. Production processes have become increasingly fragmented, with goods and services produced in stages in different countries. Firms seek to optimise their production processes by locating their various production stages in different sites and countries on the basis of optimal location factors. While distribution, sales and production activities led the way, also science and technology (S&T) activities and R&D have increasingly been located and/or relocated abroad.

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      Internationalisation of public research

      Internationalisation is an increasingly important dimension of public research in OECD and partner countries. In line with economic globalisation, research co-operation and academic mobility have internationalised sharply in recent decades. With new technologies, collaborators in different countries can communicate easily and cheaply, and it is easier than ever before to obtain information about research communities in other countries. Financing from abroad – through initiatives such as the EU Framework Programme – has become a more important part of the research funding of many institutions. While internationalisation has increased opportunities for co-operation, it has also increased the competitive pressures on research and higher education, as universities are now being ranked on a worldwide basis.

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      Cross-border science, technology and innovation governance arrangements

      Cross-border governance of science, technology and innovation (STI) involves the partial or total delegation of policy making from the national to the international level. It implies, among other things, international co-ordination of national policy initiatives, removal of obstacles to the movement of resources, setting of international standards and regulations, and transfer of authority to intergovernmental organisations and supranational authorities. It is part of a wider dual delegation process that gives a greater say in STI matters to the international, but also to the sub-national, level of governance. There are good economic arguments for extending the scope of STI governance beyond national borders (OECD, 2012):

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts STI policy profiles: Facing new social and environmental challenges

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      Green innovation

      Concerns about the environmental unsustainability of past economic growth patterns and increased awareness of the impact of climate change have propelled green growth issues to the forefront of economic and innovation policies (see the policy profile on National strategies for science, technology and innovation).

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      Innovation for social challenges

      Innovation can make a substantial contribution to dealing with social challenges such as poverty, ageing, social exclusion and health. Rapid technological change, and in particular the wide application of information and communication technologies (ICTs), can also affect overall well-being, thanks notably to the sharp decline in the cost of ICTs, which are now largely accessible to all categories of the population, including in developing economies.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts STI policy profiles: Innovation in firms

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      Policy mix for business R&D and innovation

      The term policy mix is generally taken to refer to the balance of and interactions among policies. It can refer to the different policy goals pursued by government or the different rationales for policy intervention, but it refers more commonly to the mix of instruments used in pursuit of a particular policy goal, in this case, the promotion of business R&D and innovation. This is the perspective adopted in this policy profile.

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      Government financing of business R&D and innovation

      Firms are major drivers of innovation but tend to underinvest in R&D. They engage in R&D to differentiate themselves from competitors, to be more successful in business and to increase profits. However, the costs and uncertainty of R&D, the time required to obtain returns on investment, and the possibility that competitors can capture knowledge spillovers – owing to the non-rival and non-excludable nature of R&D – often reduce their incentives to undertake R&D. The funding of innovative entrepreneurship raises further issues, addressed in the policy profile on Financing innovative entrepreneurship.

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      Tax incentives for R&D and innovation

      R&D tax incentives aim to encourage firms to perform R&D by reducing its costs. Compared with direct subsidies, R&D tax incentives allow firms to decide the nature and orientation of their R&D activities, on the assumption that the business sector is best placed to identify research areas that lead to business outcomes. R&D tax incentives are market-friendly instruments that are by nature more neutral than direct support instruments. In addition, direct subsidies under World Trade Organization (and European Commission) rules are subject to ceilings (50% of upstream R&D, 25% of downstream R&D) that do not apply to indirect support, provided the tax relief remains non- discretionary and applies evenly across firms and sectors.

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      Financing innovative entrepreneurship

      Access to financing is crucial for creating and growing an innovative business, in particular at the seed and early stages. The main sources of finance for start-ups are: the founder’s own funds (plus money from friends and family), bank loans, equity capital (including from business angels and venture capitalists) and government support. It is well documented that young innovative businesses find it difficult to obtain financing. For instance, surveys show that innovative small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the euro area consider access to finance one of their most pressing problems in the wake of the sovereign debt crisis of 2011 (EC, 2011). The difficulties arise from the high risk of entrepreneurial activities and from information asymmetries between investors and entrepreneurs. New ventures also have capital and human resource constraints, insufficient collateral and lack of a track record. The quality of an innovators’ business plan and their overall readiness for investment often play a determining role in their ability to secure funding.

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      Start-ups and innovative entrepreneurship

      The process of business entry and exit as well as post-entry firm growth enhance productivity and drive economic growth. New enterprises exert competitive pressure on incumbents and improve resource allocation by forcing less efficient firms out of the market, a process which Schumpeter called creative destruction. This process is especially important during a post-recession phase, as business creation can help renew productivity growth and job creation (OECD, 2010; Criscuolo et al., 2014). New start-ups can exploit knowledge that is not used or is underused by existing companies and draw on existing knowledge to enter new or established markets (Acs et al., 2009). This is especially true in knowledge-intensive sectors.

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      New industrial policies

      Industrial policy has many meanings, not all of them specific to manufacturing industry. A broad definition is any type of intervention or government policy that attempts to improve the business environment or to alter the structure of economic activity toward sectors, technologies or tasks that are expected to offer better prospects for economic growth or societal welfare than would occur in the absence of such intervention (Warwick, 2013).

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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/stimulating-demand-for-innovation_sti_outlook-2014-22-en
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      Stimulating demand for innovation

      Demand-side innovation policy is often understood as a set of public measures to increase public and private demand for innovations, to improve conditions for their uptake or to improve the articulation of demand in order to spur innovation and facilitate diffusion (Edler, 2007). It usually aims at lowering barriers to the market introduction and diffusion of innovations.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts STI policy profiles: Universities and public research

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      Public research missions and orientation

      Public research is carried out by research universities and public research institutions (PRIs) which are publicly owned, publicly operated or primarily funded with public money (IPP, 2014). PRIs are very diverse: their missions, activities, governance and performance vary widely across countries. Although some PRIs may offer education and training services, they usually only provide R&D support to business firms and public authorities; they may also act as intermediaries between firms and universities by interpreting the technical needs of the market (OECD, 2011). For universities teaching is an essential function, along with research.

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      Financing public research

      Public research plays a key role in innovation systems. It is the source of new knowledge, especially in areas of public interest, such as basic science or fields related to social and environmental challenges, which businesses are not always well equipped or motivated to invest in.

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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/open-science_sti_outlook-2014-25-en
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      Open science

      Information and communication technologies (ICTs), new data storage infrastructure and large-scale computing are modifying the way science is conducted and the way the results of research are disseminated. They offer new opportunities to organise and publish the inputs and outputs of research, whether scientific publications or large datasets, to make it available for free, or at extremely low marginal cost, to other scientists and researchers and potential users in the business community and society. Furthermore, even though fields such as physics and medicine have long been data-intensive, ICTs make it possible to collect large amounts of data that can be the basis of scientific experiments and research and help make science more data-driven. This transformation of science into a more open and data-driven enterprise is often known as open science.It is enabled by public policies that encourage greater access to the results of publicly funded research, including publications and data.

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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/commercialisation-of-public-research_sti_outlook-2014-26-en
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      Commercialisation of public research

      The commercialisation of public research is a major goal of national S&T policies and a key function of universities and PRIs, alongside teaching, education and the dissemination of knowledge. Public research has been the source of many of today’s innovations, sometimes as a by-product of basic research and sometimes without any prospect of a direct business application. Well-known examples are the techniques of recombinant DNA, the global positioning system (GPS), MP3 technology and Siri, Apple’s voice recognition technology. Data on scientific sources of many of today’s nanotechnology, ICT and biotechnology patents provide additional evidence of the linkages between technological innovations and public research (OECD, 2013a).

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts STI policy profiles: Networks, clusters and transfers

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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/innovation-and-the-digital-economy_sti_outlook-2014-27-en
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      Innovation and the digital economy

      The Internet is an important driver of innovation and growth. It accelerates the diffusion of information, boosts communication efficiency, facilitates networking among firms, and reduces geographical distance. The eco-system of the digital economy is mainly composed of high-speed communications infrastructure, digital content and smart applications.

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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/cluster-policy-and-smart-specialisation_sti_outlook-2014-28-en
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      Cluster policy and smart specialisation

      Clusters are a geographic concentration of firms, higher education and research institutions, and other public and private entities that facilitate collaboration on complementary economic activities. While some of the world’s leading clusters specialise in high-technology industries (e.g. Silicon Valley, Bangalore) they are also found in sectors ranging from wine making to automobiles to biotechnology.

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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/patent-policies_sti_outlook-2014-29-en
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      Patent policies

      A patent is a legal title that gives the holder the right to exclude others from using a particular invention. If the invention is successful on the market, the patent holder will profit from its monopoly power. Patents therefore allow inventors to internalise the benefits they generate. Without such a mechanism, inventions could be imitated, which would reduce inventors’ return on their investment. Patents are granted in return for disclosure of the invention and therefore play a role in the diffusion of knowledge. Inventors and firms apply for patents at patent offices, which grant or reject patents for their jurisdiction, mainly the domestic market, in accordance with their legal statutes. Most patent offices are national organisations; the main exception is the European Patent Office (EPO).

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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/intellectual-property-markets_sti_outlook-2014-30-en
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      Intellectual property markets

      Intellectual property rights (IPRs) – patents, trademarks, industrial designs and copyrights – are increasingly traded in markets. Public policy plays an important role in shaping intellectual property (IP) markets and thus their impact on innovation. In today’s highly networked world, the circulation of ideas is vital to innovation. Knowledge flows make possible a broader, more diverse and better use of existing competences and knowledge, beyond the uses or applications foreseen by the sole proprietor. Inventors, designers and authors, particularly researchers in universities and public research institutes, are not always best placed to exploit their own knowledge. Organisations are therefore increasingly looking for ways to trade knowledge capital. However, high transaction costs often impede the successful negotiation of licences or other types of agreements.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts STI policy profiles: Skills for innovation

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec031.pdf
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      Strengthening education and skills for innovation

      Education policies play a central role in innovation, by supplying the foundations and skills innovative economies require to develop processes and undertake organisational changes, but also to adopt new products and to adapt to changes over time. A number of OECD and partner countries highlight education and skills as key priorities in innovation policy. Since innovation and technological development in recent decades have had a profound impact on the labour market and the skills required for many occupations, there is an increasing focus on how well the education system equips young people with the skills to participate in and respond to innovation in the workplace.

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec032.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/labour-market-policies-for-the-highly-skilled_sti_outlook-2014-32-en
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      Labour market policies for the highly skilled

      Labour market demand for highly skilled workers has grown rapidly as advanced economies have become increasingly knowledge-based. Given the importance of human resources for innovation, university graduates enjoy better work prospects, a higher wage premium and have more training opportunities than less educated workers (OECD, 2013a; OECD, 2014, forthcoming). They are less likely to remain unemployed, especially for a long time. They have suffered less from the global crisis (OECD, 2012a) and, unlike other categories of workers, employment for professionals and technicians, i.e. higher-skilled non-managerial occupations, showed signs of recovery between 2011 and 2012 (OECD, 2013a). Higher education is thus a factor in employability and lifelong learning.

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec033.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/building-a-science-and-innovation-culture_sti_outlook-2014-33-en
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      Building a science and innovation culture

      Innovation requires developing and mobilising a broad range of skills throughout workplaces and society (Hanel, 2007; OECD, 2010; Toner, 2011). Skills for innovation span a wide range of personal attributes, including relevant subject knowledge (from theoretical to practical expertise and know-how), creative thinking (such as analytical and critical capabilities), and behavioural and social traits (e.g. self-confidence, risk taking, leadership, teamwork, attitudes towards change). Innovation can be influenced by the social and cultural values, norms and behaviours that can create an innovation culture, in which public perceptions of science, technology and entrepreneurship play a very important role.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts STI country profiles

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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/sti-country-profiles-reader-s-guide_sti_outlook-2014-34-en
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      STI country profiles reader's guide

      The country profiles (CPs) in the 2014 OECD STI Outlook (STIO) are designed to provide a concise overview of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy and performance in OECD members and selected non-OECD economies. Each country profile is based on information gathered from the country’s response to the OECD STIO policy questionnaires 2012 and 2014, as well as various additional OECD and non-OECD sources.

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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/argentina_sti_outlook-2014-35-en
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      Argentina

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec036.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/australia_sti_outlook-2014-36-en
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      Australia

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec037.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/austria_sti_outlook-2014-37-en
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      Austria

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec038.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/belgium_sti_outlook-2014-38-en
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      Belgium

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec039.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/brazil_sti_outlook-2014-39-en
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      Brazil

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec040.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/canada_sti_outlook-2014-40-en
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      Canada

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec041.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/chile_sti_outlook-2014-41-en
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      Chile

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec042.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/china_sti_outlook-2014-42-en
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      China

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec043.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/colombia_sti_outlook-2014-43-en
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      Colombia

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec044.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/costa-rica_sti_outlook-2014-44-en
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      Costa Rica

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec045.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/czech-republic_sti_outlook-2014-45-en
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      Czech Republic

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec046.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/denmark_sti_outlook-2014-46-en
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      Denmark

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec047.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/estonia_sti_outlook-2014-47-en
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      Estonia

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec048.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/finland_sti_outlook-2014-48-en
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      Finland

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec049.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/france_sti_outlook-2014-49-en
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      France

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec050.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/germany_sti_outlook-2014-50-en
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      Germany

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec051.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/greece_sti_outlook-2014-51-en
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      Greece

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec052.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/hungary_sti_outlook-2014-52-en
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      Hungary

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec053.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/iceland_sti_outlook-2014-53-en
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      Iceland

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec054.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/india_sti_outlook-2014-54-en
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      India

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec055.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/indonesia_sti_outlook-2014-55-en
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      Indonesia

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec056.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/ireland_sti_outlook-2014-56-en
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      Ireland

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec057.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/israel_sti_outlook-2014-57-en
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      Israel

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec058.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/italy_sti_outlook-2014-58-en
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      Italy

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec059.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/japan_sti_outlook-2014-59-en
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      Japan

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec060.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/korea_sti_outlook-2014-60-en
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      Korea

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec061.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/latvia_sti_outlook-2014-61-en
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      Latvia

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec062.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/lithuania_sti_outlook-2014-62-en
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      Lithuania

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec063.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/luxembourg_sti_outlook-2014-63-en
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      Luxembourg

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec064.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/malaysia_sti_outlook-2014-64-en
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      Malaysia

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec065.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/mexico_sti_outlook-2014-65-en
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      Mexico

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec066.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/the-netherlands_sti_outlook-2014-66-en
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      The Netherlands

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec067.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/new-zealand_sti_outlook-2014-67-en
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      New Zealand

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec068.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/norway_sti_outlook-2014-68-en
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      Norway

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec069.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/poland_sti_outlook-2014-69-en
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      Poland

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec070.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/portugal_sti_outlook-2014-70-en
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      Portugal

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec071.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/russian-federation_sti_outlook-2014-71-en
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      Russian Federation

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec072.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/slovak-republic_sti_outlook-2014-72-en
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      Slovak Republic

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec073.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/slovenia_sti_outlook-2014-73-en
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      Slovenia

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec074.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/south-africa_sti_outlook-2014-74-en
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      South Africa

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec075.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/spain_sti_outlook-2014-75-en
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      Spain

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec076.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/sweden_sti_outlook-2014-76-en
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      Sweden

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec077.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/switzerland_sti_outlook-2014-77-en
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      Switzerland

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec078.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/turkey_sti_outlook-2014-78-en
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      Turkey

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec079.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/united-kingdom_sti_outlook-2014-79-en
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      United Kingdom

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec080.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/united-states_sti_outlook-2014-80-en
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      United States

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec081.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/european-union_sti_outlook-2014-81-en
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      European Union

      Economic and environmental performance

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        http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9214011ec082.pdf
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      • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/science-and-technology/oecd-science-technology-and-industry-outlook-2014/methodological-annex-to-the-2014-oecd-sti-outlook-country-profiles_sti_outlook-2014-82-en
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      Methodological annex to the 2014 OECD STI Outlook country profiles

      The country profiles ()present the main features, strengths and weaknesses of national STI systems and major recent changes in national STI policy. This annex describes the conceptual background, sources and methodology used to design these profiles.

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