OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008
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OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008

The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2008 reviews key trends in science, technology and innovation in OECD countries and a number of major non-member economies including Brazil, Chile, China, Israel, Russia and South Africa. Using the latest available data and indicators, the book examines topics high on the agenda of science and innovation policy makers, including science and innovation performance; trends in national science, technology and innovation policies; and practices to assess the socio-economic impacts of public research. This volume also provides an individual profile of the science and innovation performance of each country in relation to its national context and current policy challenges.

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Following a period of robust expansion since 2001, economic growth in the United States slowed at the end of 2007. The diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICTs) continues to fuel productivity growth, especially in the business services sector. The United States is an innovation powerhouse, but its lead is increasingly challenged from some of its main international trading partners and emerging economies. R&D intensity fell slightly to 2.6% of GDP in 2006, down from 2.7% of GDP in 2001, although total R&D expenditure expanded in real terms to USD 344 billion, led by increases in business sector R&D spending (USD 208 billion in 2006). The share of R&D performed by government has fallen (to 11.1% in 2006), while that of the higher education sector has grown (to 14.3% in 2006 compared to 12.1% in 2001).
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