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1. Gross domestic expenditure on R&D

As a percentage of GDP You or your institution have access to this content

Keywords: development, R&D, research, expenditure
27 May 2013
Update frequency:
Annual
DOI:
10.1787/2075843x-table1
Also available in: French
 
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Science and technology: Key tables from OECD - ISSN 2075-843X - © OECD 2013

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D
As a percentage of GDP
‌‌
‌2004‌
‌2005‌
‌2006‌
‌2007‌
‌2008‌
‌2009‌
‌2010‌
‌2011‌
Australia
1.73
 
..
 
2.01
 
..
 
2.26
 
..
 
2.20
 
..
 
Austria
2.24
 
2.46
 
2.44
 
2.51
 
2.67
 
2.71
 
2.79
 
2.75
 
Belgium
1.86
 
1.83
 
1.86
 
1.89
 
1.97
 
2.03
 
2.00
 
2.04
 
Canada
2.07
 
2.04
 
2.00
 
1.96
 
1.92
 
1.94
 
1.85
 
1.74
 
Chile
..
 
..
 
..
 
0.31
 
0.37
 
0.41
 
0.42
 
..
 
Czech Republic
1.20
 
1.35
 
1.49
 
1.48
 
1.41
 
1.47
 
1.55
 
1.84
 
Denmark
2.48
 
2.46
 
2.48
 
2.58
 
2.85
 
3.16
 
3.07
 
3.09
 
Estonia
0.85
 
0.93
 
1.13
 
1.08
 
1.28
 
1.43
 
1.63
 
2.38
 
Finland
3.45
 
3.48
 
3.48
 
3.47
 
3.70
 
3.94
 
3.90
 
3.78
 
France
2.16
 
2.11
 
2.11
 
2.08
 
2.12
 
2.27
 
2.24
 
2.25
 
Germany
2.50
 
2.51
 
2.54
 
2.53
 
2.69
 
2.82
 
2.80
 
2.84
 
Greece
0.56
 
0.60
 
0.59
 
0.60
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Hungary
0.88
 
0.94
 
1.01
 
0.98
 
1.00
 
1.17
 
1.17
 
1.21
 
Iceland
..
 
2.77
 
2.99
 
2.68
 
2.65
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Ireland
1.23
 
1.25
 
1.25
 
1.29
 
1.46
 
1.76
 
1.71
 
1.72
 
Israel 1
4.29
 
4.43
 
4.51
 
4.86
 
4.77
 
4.49
 
4.34
 
4.38
 
Italy
1.09
 
1.09
 
1.13
 
1.17
 
1.21
 
1.26
 
1.26
 
1.25
 
Japan
3.13
 
3.31
 
3.41
 
3.46
 
3.47
 
3.36
 
3.26
 
..
 
Korea
2.68
 
2.79
 
3.01
 
3.21
 
3.36
 
3.56
 
3.74
 
..
 
Luxembourg
1.63
 
1.56
 
1.66
 
1.58
 
1.66
 
1.72
 
1.48
 
1.43
 
Mexico
0.40
 
0.41
 
0.38
 
0.37
 
0.41
 
0.44
 
..
 
..
 
Netherlands
1.93
 
1.90
 
1.88
 
1.81
 
1.77
 
1.82
 
1.85
 
2.04
 
New Zealand
..
 
1.14
 
..
 
1.19
 
..
 
1.30
 
..
 
..
 
Norway
1.57
 
1.51
 
1.48
 
1.59
 
1.58
 
1.76
 
1.68
 
1.64
 
Poland
0.56
 
0.57
 
0.56
 
0.57
 
0.60
 
0.67
 
0.74
 
0.77
 
Portugal
0.74
 
0.78
 
0.99
 
1.17
 
1.50
 
1.64
 
1.59
 
1.49
 
Slovak Republic
0.51
 
0.51
 
0.49
 
0.46
 
0.47
 
0.48
 
0.63
 
0.68
 
Slovenia
1.39
 
1.44
 
1.56
 
1.45
 
1.66
 
1.85
 
2.09
 
2.47
 
Spain
1.06
 
1.12
 
1.20
 
1.27
 
1.35
 
1.39
 
1.39
 
1.33
 
Sweden
3.58
 
3.56
 
3.68
 
3.40
 
3.70
 
3.60
 
3.39
 
3.37
 
Switzerland
2.82
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
2.87
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
Turkey
0.52
 
0.59
 
0.58
 
0.72
 
0.73
 
0.85
 
0.84
 
..
 
United Kingdom
1.69
 
1.72
 
1.74
 
1.77
 
1.78
 
1.84
 
1.80
 
1.77
 
United States
2.55
 
2.59
 
2.65
 
2.72
 
2.86
 
2.91
 
2.83
 
2.77
 
EU27
1.73
 
1.74
 
1.76
 
1.77
 
1.84
 
1.92
 
1.91
 
1.94
 
OECD Total
2.18
 
2.22
 
2.26
 
2.29
 
2.36
 
2.41
 
2.38
 
..
 
Last updated: 27 May 2013; disclaimer: http://oe.cd/disclaimer
..
Not available
Note: Country specific footnotes are available at http://www.oecd.org/sti/msti_2012_2_documentation_e.pdf
1.
The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.
c)
National estimate or projection
p)
Provisional
Source: Main Science and Technology Indicators, OECD Science, Technology and R&D Statistics
 

This table includes data on gross expenditure on research and development. The table is part of the key tables collection on science and technology.

Years covered:
2004-2011

Countries covered

  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Korea, Republic of
  • Luxembourg
  • Mexico
  • Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Slovak Republic
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden