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1. Gross domestic expenditure on R&D

As a percentage of GDP You or your institution have access to this content

Keywords: development, R&D, research, expenditure
27 Apr 2011
Update frequency:
Annual
DOI:
10.1787/rdxp-table-2011-1-en
Also available in: French
 
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Science and technology: Key tables from OECD - ISSN 2075-843X - © OECD 2011

 Gross domestic expenditure on R&D
 As a percentage of GDP
 
 
 
 2003
 2004
 2005
 2006
 2007
 2008
 2009
 2010
 
Australia
..
 
1.72
 
..
 
2.00
 
..
 
2.21
 
..
 
..
 
 
Austria
2.26
 
 c
2.26
 
2.45
 
 c
2.46
 
2.52
 
2.67
 
 c,p
2.75
 
 c,p
2.75
 
 p
 
Belgium
1.88
 
1.86
 
1.83
 
1.86
 
1.90
 
1.96
 
 p
1.96
 
 p
..
 
 
Canada
2.04
 
2.07
 
2.05
 
1.97
 
1.91
 
1.84
 
 p
1.95
 
 p
..
 
 
Chile
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
 
Czech Republic
1.25
 
1.25
 
1.41
 
1.55
 
1.54
 
1.47
 
1.53
 
..
 
 
Denmark
2.58
 
2.48
 
2.46
 
2.48
 
2.58
 
2.87
 
3.02
 
 c
..
 
 
Estonia
0.77
 
0.85
 
0.93
 
1.13
 
1.10
 
1.29
 
1.42
 
 p
1.48
 
 
Finland
3.44
 
3.45
 
3.48
 
3.48
 
3.47
 
3.72
 
3.96
 
3.87
 
 
France
2.17
 
2.15
 
2.10
 
2.10
 
2.07
 
2.11
 
2.21
 
 c
..
 
 
Germany
2.52
 
2.49
 
2.49
 
2.53
 
2.53
 
2.68
 
2.82
 
 c
..
 
 
Greece
0.57
 
0.55
 
 c
0.59
 
0.58
 
 c
0.58
 
 c
..
 
..
 
..
 
 
Hungary
0.93
 
0.87
 
0.95
 
1.00
 
0.97
 
1.00
 
1.15
 
..
 
 
Iceland
2.82
 
..
 
2.77
 
2.99
 
2.68
 
2.65
 
 p
..
 
..
 
 
Ireland
1.17
 
1.23
 
1.25
 
1.25
 
1.29
 
1.45
 
1.77
 
 p
..
 
 
Israel 1
4.33
 
4.25
 
4.41
 
4.42
 
4.77
 
4.66
 
 p
4.27
 
 p
..
 
 
Italy
1.11
 
1.10
 
1.09
 
1.13
 
1.18
 
1.23
 
1.27
 
 p
..
 
 
Japan
3.20
 
3.17
 
3.32
 
3.40
 
3.44
 
3.44
 
..
 
..
 
 
Korea
2.49
 
2.68
 
2.79
 
3.01
 
3.21
 
3.36
 
..
 
..
 
 
Luxembourg
1.65
 
1.63
 
1.56
 
1.66
 
1.58
 
 c
1.56
 
1.68
 
 p
..
 
 
Mexico
0.40
 
0.40
 
0.41
 
0.39
 
0.37
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
 
Netherlands
1.92
 
1.93
 
1.90
 
1.88
 
1.81
 
1.76
 
1.84
 
 p
..
 
 
New Zealand
1.17
 
..
 
1.14
 
..
 
1.18
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
 
Norway
1.71
 
1.59
 
1.52
 
1.52
 
1.65
 
1.64
 
1.80
 
 p
..
 
 
Poland
0.54
 
0.56
 
0.57
 
0.56
 
0.57
 
0.60
 
0.68
 
..
 
 
Portugal
0.71
 
0.75
 
 c
0.78
 
0.99
 
 c
1.17
 
1.50
 
1.66
 
 p
..
 
 
Slovak Republic
0.57
 
0.51
 
0.51
 
0.49
 
0.46
 
0.47
 
0.48
 
..
 
 
Slovenia
1.27
 
1.40
 
1.44
 
1.56
 
1.45
 
1.65
 
1.86
 
 p
..
 
 
Spain
1.05
 
1.06
 
1.12
 
1.20
 
1.27
 
1.35
 
1.38
 
..
 
 
Sweden
3.80
 
3.58
 
3.56
 
3.68
 
3.40
 
3.70
 
 c
3.62
 
 p
..
 
 
Switzerland
..
 
2.90
 
..
 
..
 
..
 
3.00
 
..
 
..
 
 
Turkey
0.48
 
0.52
 
0.59
 
0.58
 
0.72
 
0.73
 
0.85
 
..
 
 
United Kingdom
1.75
 
1.68
 
1.73
 
1.75
 
1.78
 
1.77
 
1.87
 
 p
1.81
 
 p
 
United States
2.61
 
2.54
 
2.57
 
2.61
 
2.67
 
2.79
 
 p
..
 
..
 
 
EU27
1.76
 
1.73
 
1.74
 
1.77
 
1.77
 
1.84
 
1.92
 
 p
..
 
 
OECD Total 2
2.21
 
2.18
 
2.21
 
2.24
 
2.28
 
2.34
 
..
 
..
 
Last updated: 27 April 2011
Note:  Country specific footnotes are available at www.oecd.org/dataoecd/52/43/43143328.pdf
1
The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.
2
Excluding Chile
c
National estimate or projection adjusted, if necessary, by the Secretariat to meet OECD norms
p
Provisional
Source: Main Science and Technology Indicators, OECD Science, Technology and R&D Statistics
 

This table includes data on gross expenditure on research and development. The table is part of the key tables collection on science and technology.

Years covered:
2003-2010

Countries covered

  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Korea, Republic of
  • Luxembourg
  • Mexico
  • Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Slovak Republic
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden