Beneficial Uses and Production of Isotopes

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Author(s):
OECD, NEA
Publication Date :
06 Dec 1999
Pages :
64
ISBN :
9789264174368 (PDF) ; 9789264169531 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/9789264174368-en

Hide / Show Abstract

Radioactive and stable isotopes are used throughout the world and in many sectors, including medicine, industry, agriculture and research. In many applications isotopes have no substitute, and in most others they are more effective and cheaper than alternative techniques or processes.

This publication is the first international survey on the beneficial uses and production of isotopes. It provides an overview of their main uses, and detailed information on the facilities that produce them world-wide. Trends in isotope supply and demand are analysed, and the conclusions and recommendations presented point to key issues to be considered by governments.

Also available in: French

Table of Contents

Foreword
Executive Summary
1. INTRODUCTION
2. ISOTOPE USES
-2.1 Medicine and research in biology
--2.1.1 Nuclear imaging
---2.1.1.1 Gamma imaging
---2.1.1.2 Positron imaging: Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
---2.1.1.3 Bone density measurement
--2.1.2 Radioimmunoassay
--2.1.3 Radiotherapy with radiopharmaceuticals
--2.1.4 Radiotherapy with sealed sources
---2.1.4.1 Remotely controlled cobalt therapy
---2.1.4.2 Brachytherapy
--2.1.5 Irradiation of blood for transfusion
--2.1.6 Endovascular radiotherapy
--2.1.7 Stable isotopes
-2.2 Industrial sectors
--2.2.1 Nucleonic instrumentation
---2.2.1.1 On-line control systems
---2.2.1.2 Laboratory or portable systems
---2.2.1.3 Smoke detectors
-.2.2 Irradiation and radiation processing
--2.2.3 Radioactive tracers
--2.2.4 Non destructive testing
--2.2.5 Other industrial uses of radioactive isotopes
--2.2.6 Stable isotopes
-2.3 Scientific applications
--2.3.1 Biomedical research
--2.3.2 Materials research
3. ISOTOPE PRODUCTION
-3.1 Reactors
--3.1.1 Research reactors
--3.1.2 Nuclear power plants
-3.2 Accelerators
--3.2.1 Dedicated accelerators
---3.2.1.1 Cyclotrons producing isotopes for medical applications
---3.2.1.2 Cyclotrons for Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
--3.2.2 Non-dedicated accelerators
---3.2.2.1 High energy accelerators
---3.2.2.2 Medium energy accelerators
-3.3 Radioactive isotope separation
--3.3.1 Separation of isotopes from fission products
--3.3.2 Separation of transuranium elements and alpha emitters
-3.4 Stable isotope production
--3.4.1 Heavy stable isotopes
--3.4.2 Light stable isotopes
4. TRENDS IN ISOTOPE USES AND PRODUCTION
-4.1 Trends in isotope uses
-4.2 Trends in isotope production
5. FINDING, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
-5.1 Findings
--5.1.1 Isotope uses
--5.1.2 Isotope production
--5.1.3 Role of governments
--5.1.4 Role of international exchanges
--5.1.5 Costs and prices
-5.2 Conclusions
-5.3 Recommendations
Annex 1 Bibliography
Annex 2 List of contributors to the report
Annex 3 Major radioisotopes produced by reactors and accelerators
Annex 4 Isotope production in OECD countries
Annex 5 Countries and regional groupings
Annex 6 Geographical distribution of research reactors producing isotopes
Annex 7 Geographical distribution of accelerators producing isotopes