Transnational Corporations

Frequency
3 times a year
ISSN: 
2076-099X (online)
http://dx.doi.org/10.18356/d3e73f33-en
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This journal takes a fresh look at major legal, sectorial, regional and environmental issues facing corporations operating internationally. Released three times a year, it provides in-depth policy-oriented research findings on significant issues relating to the activities of transnational corporations.
 

Volume 18, Issue 1 You do not have access to this content

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31 Dec 2010
ISBN:
9789210558310 (PDF)
http://dx.doi.org/10.18356/5ef8d0e2-en

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Mark Mark Date TitleClick to Access
  31 Dec 2010
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/international-trade-and-finance/contracting-and-regulatory-issues-in-the-oil-and-gas-and-metallic-minerals-industries_a528fffd-en
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Contracting and regulatory issues in the oil and gas and metallic minerals industries
Michael Likosky
This article looks at key regulatory and contractual issues in the oil and gas and also metal minerals industries. It provides an overview of contract types and discusses several state-of-the-art issues. In discussing contract types, it first provides a brief historical backdrop. It then turns to the major contract types. Both the history of traditional concessions and the enumerated present-day contract types are common to oil and gas and also metal mineral extraction. For this reason, they will be discussed together. Among state-of-the-art issues, the article considers (1) contract renegotiations, mainly with regard to Bolivia, Ecuador and the Venezuela; (2) the proposed Iraqi oil law; and (3) the handling of human rights and environmental issues by projects.
  31 Dec 2010
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/international-trade-and-finance/activities-of-tncs-in-extractive-industries-in-asia-and-the-pacific-implications-for-development_b5b9aeca-en
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Activities of TNCs in extractive industries in Asia and the Pacific: Implications for development
Glenn Banks
This article provides an overview of development outcomes from the activities of transnational corporations (TNCs) in extractive industries. Drawing on the author’s experience of working as a geographer around the mines in Papua New Guinea and the global literature on the subject, the economic, social, cultural and environmental impacts of mining and resource extraction in the Asia-Pacific region are discussed. The focus of the article is the impact in the locality. The article concludes by discussing the growing influence of NGO activities and awareness of corporate social responsibility.
  31 Dec 2010
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/international-trade-and-finance/the-role-of-tncs-in-the-extractive-industry-of-botswana_5d3234af-en
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The role of TNCs in the extractive industry of Botswana
Keith Jefferis
This article reviews the involvement of transnational corporations (TNCs) in the extractive industry of Botswana and the role of government policy that has governed its development. First, it reviews the trends and determinants of TNC involvement in various sub-sectors of mining. Then it assesses the economic, environmental and social impacts of mining, which have been largely positive in Botswana. To identify the factors contributing to the success, the article describes the government policy and involvement in the extractive industry. The article concludes by offering some recommendations.
  31 Dec 2010
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/international-trade-and-finance/the-role-of-tncs-in-the-extractive-industry-of-the-united-republic-of-tanzania_1ac4a9c8-en
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The role of TNCs in the extractive industry of the United Republic of Tanzania
Josaphat Kweka
Tanzania is richly endowed with mineral resources. Since the mid-1990s, the mining sector has been the fastest-growing sector in the economy, following adoption of favourable investment policies with specific measures for the mineral sector. The influx of FDI is having a net positive development impact, but which needs to be nuanced. First, the impact on the industry in terms of export revenue, employment, technology, skills and knowledge, and Government revenue is significant in absolute and relative terms, given the low base from which the industry grew. Secondly, the impact on local communities is also notable, however, the size of such contributions is largely disproportionate to the revenues accruing to the TNCs and the social cost of the environmental degradation associated with the mining operations. Finally, There is a lack of substantial economy–wide multiplier effects, as would be suggested by the “trickle-down” theorem; but this is purely a policy failure argument in that the lack of significant linkages to the rest of the economy arises from weak supply capacity and an incomplete supply chain. Policy recommendations are made based on a careful assessment of the wider social, political and economic dimensions.
  31 Dec 2010
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/international-trade-and-finance/research-notes-social-and-human-rights-implications-of-tnc-activities-in-the-extractive-industries_0f2b38d1-en
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Research notes: Social and human rights implications of TNC activities in the extractive industries
Peter Muchlinski
TNC operations in extractive industries can be associated with abuses of social and human rights in certain circumstances. For instance, competition over resource wealth may spark armed conflict in some countries, and even the formation of rebel groups; or, as another example, control of resources by the Government (may be linked to corruption and an inequitable distribution of public resources. This article examines the categories of human rights abuses which may occur, as well as the responsibilities of TNCs and other corporations in this regard. The latter is discussed in the context of “new players”, such as those from developing countries, the complex structures of many TNCs, and their governance (e.g. some are state-owned enterprises). The article concludes by assessing the roles that Governments, TNCs, NGOs and others can play in achieving a viable balance between a favourable investment environment in extractive industries and the interests of local populations.
  31 Dec 2010
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/23870dc3-en.pdf
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/international-trade-and-finance/internationalization-of-tncs-from-the-extractive-industries-a-literature-review_23870dc3-en
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Internationalization of TNCs from the extractive industries: A literature review
Romy Kraemer, Rob van Tulder
The literature on the nature, shape and logic of internationalization of extractive industry TNCs is rather fragmented and poorly developed. This is a mounting problem since extractive industries are not only becoming increasingly important, but their operations have also become increasingly controversial. This article takes stock of three types of approaches towards internationalization. First traditional intrinsic motives, which represent an ‘international management’ angle and focuses on the resource-seeking, efficiency-seeking and strategic asset-seeking nature of extractive TNCs. Secondly, traditional extrinsic motives, which represents a more political economic angle towards extractive industries, and which builds on a bargaining perspective of internationalization. Thirdly, a modern extension of extrinsic motives to internationalization will be added, which considers the increasing role of Non-Governmental Organizations as factor in shaping the internationalization trajectories of extractive industries. This approach represents a ‘stakeholder’ approach to firm strategies. It considers the societal position of firms and considers the ‘license to operate’ or the normative position of transnational corporations. A correct understanding of the dynamics of internationalization of extractive industry TNCs requires an integrative approach of extrinsic as well as intrinsic motives. This article delineates the most important ingredients of such an approach.
  31 Dec 2010
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/international-trade-and-finance/capturing-a-fair-share-of-fiscal-benefits-in-the-extractive-industry_1f2a726f-en
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Capturing a fair share of fiscal benefits in the extractive industry
Bryan Land
For many Governments, their expectations of reaping a fair share of the high returns to the extractive industry over the last few years are not yet being realized. In light of likely continued good returns to the industry, at least in the medium-term, it is important for Governments to set up suitable arrangements, particularly in the fiscal arena. In order for them to do so, a number of conditions need to be met. First, there has to be an appreciation of the characteristics of the extractive industry and the Government’s bargaining strength. Secondly, there must be fiscal policy coherence between Government institutions to underpin suitable fiscal arrangements. Thirdly, it is necessary to ensure the availability of skills necessary to formulate fiscal policies and appropriate negotiating strategies. A final requirement for countries and Governments is the capacity to administer and enforce more sophisticated forms of taxation and contractual arrangements.
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