OECD Studies on Tourism

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This series of studies on tourism examines various means of promoting tourism as well as the related policies and programmes of specific countries.

Tourism and the Creative Economy

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24 July 2014
9789264207875 (PDF) ;9789264207868(print)

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As the significance of the creative economy continues to grow, important synergies with tourism are emerging, offering considerable potential to grow demand and develop new products, experiences and markets.These new links are driving a shift from conventional models of cultural tourism to new models of creative tourism based on intangible culture and contemporary creativity. This report examines the growing relationship between the tourism and creative sectors to guide the development of effective policies in this area. Drawing on recent case studies, it considers how to strengthen these linkages and take advantage of the opportunities to generate added value. Active policies are needed so that countries, regions and cities can realise the potential benefits from linking tourism and creativity. Key policy issues are identified.

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  • Foreword

    This report is based on an OECD Tourism Committee review of the linkages and synergies between tourism and the creative industries. It has been prepared with the financial support from the Ministry of Culture, Sport and Tourism of Korea. Conducted in 2014, the review aims to better understand the emerging relationship between the tourism and creative sectors to support the development of effective policies in this area. It builds on previous OECD work on The Impact of Culture on Tourism (2009) and Food and the Tourism Experience (2012). The OECD recently reiterated the economic contribution made by the creative industries and emphasised the need to establish linkages with tourism.

  • Executive summary

    The creative industries play a major role in generating, transforming and disseminating knowledge and have developed faster than the global economy as a whole in recent years, with trade in creative goods and services growing by 8.8% a year from 2002-11. They have the potential to stimulate economic growth and job creation, support innovation and entrepreneurship, aid urban and rural regeneration, and stimulate exports.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts The emergence of creative tourism

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    • Creative tourism: Overview and policy directions

      Creativity has become important in the knowledge economy, supporting economic growth and job creation. Linking the creative industries with tourism can boost demand, stimulate innovation in tourism experiences, revitalise tourism products, add atmosphere to destinations and improve place image. Developing new forms of creative tourism involves the use of different creative sectors and content and the application of new technologies. Active policy approaches are required to generate synergies. Policy makers need to consider a range of interlinked issues when seeking to develop creative tourism, including ways to stimulate creative content development for tourism experiences and link this to destinations and support network building and knowledge generation.

    • Creative industries in the knowledge economy

      "Creative industries" is a relatively new term that signals the growing importance of creativity and innovation in the knowledge economy. The creative industries cover a diverse range of sectors and activities and many definitions exist. This chapter reviews existing definitions and proposes a specific definition of the creative industries in relation to tourism. The development and growth of the creative industries are then examined and key policy areas are highlighted. The creative industries are supported by governments for many reasons, including promoting economic growth, job creation and exports; stimulating innovation; and supporting urban and regional regeneration.

    • Creative tourism as a source of growth

      Creative tourism differs from traditional models of cultural tourism, primarily in being based on intangible skill and knowledge-related assets. There is a shift towards value networks, a focus on innovation and co-creation with consumers. There is evidence that these new models of creative tourism can deliver considerable added value, increasing tourism demand and diversifying tourism supply. Linking tourism and the creative industries can also aid image building, atmosphere creation and attraction of talent. The innovation sparked by the creative industries is driving trends, including the emergence of new creative intermediaries, the sharing economy and the growth of relational tourism. The important implications for policy are also discussed in this chapter.

    • Creative tourism policies and practices

      This chapter reviews the policies and practices adopted at national, regional and local level to capitalise on the potential growth and development opportunities of strengthening connections between tourism and the creative industries. It particularly draws on recent case studies prepared by OECD and non-member countries, illustrating innovative practices on the development and promotion of tourism associated with the creative industries.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Creative tourism case studies

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    • Creative Austria content communication platform

      Creative Austria (www.creativeaustria.at) is a communication platform that supports the marketing of a number of Austrian cities and regions, focused on target groups with a high interest in contemporary culture. Creative Austria communicates appropriate content from contemporary culture or the creative industries that can raise international interest in the Creative Austria member destinations. It does not focus on a specific creative industry sector, aiming to highlight any relevant content to generate general interest in the partner destinations.

    • Developing creative service industries in Hangzhou, People's Republic of China

      Creativity is changing the People’s Republic of China according to Li Wuwei (2011), a leading Chinese economist and policy advisor. The nation is learning to embrace a "third industrial revolution" (Rifkin, 2011) while banking the economic capital of the carbon-dependent manufacturing economy. Urbanisation is also driving change and consumer culture (Gerth, 2010).

    • Design-induced tourism in Milan, Italy

      There has been much debate in recent years in Italy about the role of culture for the country’s economic and social development. On the one hand, cuts in public funding and the urgent need to find models of governance that are able to open the doors to the private sector and to new resources have created new interest in this issue in civil society too. On the other hand, studies of the cultural and creative industries (Santagata, 2009) have revealed that cultural production generates considerable added value and employment in Italy: data for 2011 record almost EUR 76 billion in turnover and 1.4 million employees (Fondazione Symbola and Unioncamere, 2012).

    • Contemporary art and tourism on Setouchi Islands, Japan

      The Seto Inland Sea is surrounded by the Japanese islands of Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. It has been an important transport route linking the Kinki region, including Kyoto, Nara, Osaka and Kobe, with the Kyushu region and other Asian countries. Since the 1980s, Naoshima Island, one of the islands in the Seto Inland Sea, has housed several contemporary art projects, such as museums, outdoor artworks and workshops. Known as the Benesse Art Site Naoshima (www.benesse-artsite.jp/en), these projects have been supported by Benesse Holdings, Inc., an Okayama Prefecture-based correspondence education and publishing company, and the Fukutake Foundation, which was established under Benesse’s patronage. As Naoshima became known as "the island of contemporary art", similar art projects spread to other islands. This long-term art project is the first topic of this case study.

    • Hallyu and technology-based tourism in Korea

      Creative tourism in Korea includes the creation of new directions in tourism through the application of creativity and imagination; the development of new tourism services through integration across industries; the creation of creative tourism products through the use of creative networks; and the discovery of high value-added tourism resources through linking and integrating tourism elements.

    • Wellington, "Creative Capital" of New Zealand

      Wellington’s collaboration with its creative industries justifies the city‘s claim to be New Zealand‘s "Creative Capital". This collaboration – particularly over the past 20 years – is now paying dividends into the city’s economy and has gained recognition throughout the country. The city and the creative industries have an inclusive relationship with Wellington’s citizens, who frequently buy tickets to festivals, events, exhibitions and shows. They can also attend fringe events that sometimes occur in the streets, restaurants, cafés and Wellington’s waterfront area.

    • Creative tourism in Santa Fe, United States

      For centuries, individuals have travelled to Santa Fe, New Mexico seeking a new experience, environment and understanding. Blessed with abundant natural assets, Santa Fe’s history is one of dynamic exchange and blending of cultural traditions. This unique crucible of landscape, history, culture and art has long attracted creative individuals, giving birth to a creative industry interwoven in the very fabric of the community. Arts and cultural industries are, and always have been, a principle engine of Santa Fe’s economy, creating jobs, attracting investment, generating tax revenue and enhancing the quality of life for the entire community. But how does such a city continue to cultivate a diverse mix of creative individuals and generate economic growth while preserving its unique character? This case study will explore how the city of Santa Fe’s Creative Tourism programme has leveraged cultural assets, public policy and the UNESCO Creative Cities designation to develop a creative industry that generates new tourism revenues and builds economic benefit for the entire community.

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