The Missing Entrepreneurs 2014

The Missing Entrepreneurs 2014

Policies for Inclusive Entrepreneurship in Europe You or your institution have access to this content

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01 Dec 2014
9789264213593 (PDF) ;9789264213579(print)

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The Missing Entrepreneurs 2014 is the second edition in a series of annual reports that provide data and policy analysis on inclusive entrepreneurship, and on its barriers, by target social groups across the European Union. Inclusive entrepreneurship involves business start-ups and self-employment activities that contribute to economic growth and social inclusion - notably of youth, women, seniors, immigrants and the unemployed. In addition to inspiring policy practices, this issue contains special thematic chapters on entrepreneurship by ethnic minorities, pro-entrepreneurship welfare support systems and support for entrepreneurship from unemployment.

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  • Preface and Acknowledgements

    The global economy is expected to strengthen over the next few years and regain its former growth trend. However, the crisis has left a number of major economic and social challenges, including persistent unemployment and growing inequalities. Nearly 26 million people in the European Union (EU25) were unemployed at the end of 2013, of which 12.6 million had been unemployed for more than one year. Moreover, one-quarter of the EU25 population is at risk of falling into poverty.

  • Executive summary

    There is a common perception that the typical entrepreneur in the European Union (EU) is white, male, and wealthy. In reality, most entrepreneurs do not fit into this category but come from a wide range of backgrounds. Nevertheless, there are several social groups (e.g. women, youth, seniors, the unemployed and people with disabilities) that are under-represented in entrepreneurship or face greater barriers to starting businesses than people from the mainstream. With entrepreneurship making such a valuable contribution to economic growth and job creation, the EU cannot afford not to capitalise on the potential that people from under-represented and disadvantaged groups hold.

  • Reader's guide

    This reader’s guide provides information and methodological notes on the data sources used in this book: 1) OECD-Eurostat Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme, 2) Eurostat Labour Force Survey, 3) Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 4) Flash Eurobarometer, and 5) Statistics on Income and Living Conditions.

  • Inclusive entrepreneurship policy in the European Union,

    Social inclusion is a longstanding policy priority for EU member states and the urgency for action has increased since the economic crisis as unemployment and labour market exclusion have increased. Entrepreneurship has the potential to be a part of the solution. Inclusive entrepreneurship policies aim to ensure that all members of society have an equal opportunity to start-up and operate in business and self-employment or to use the experience of engagement with entrepreneurship to increase their skills and employability. These policies aim to support those who face particular challenges in setting-up sustainable businesses – including women, youth, seniors, ethnic minorities, and people with disabilities – but at the same time have under-recognised potential for entrepreneurship.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Inclusive entrepreneurship activities in Europe

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    • Self-employment and entrepreneurship activities by women,

      This chapter presents evidence on the quantity and quality of self-employment and entrepreneurship activities by women. This includes data on the prevalence of these activities across EU member states, the characteristics of self-employment and the barriers faced in starting a business.

    • Self-employment and entrepreneurship activities by youth,

      This chapter presents evidence on the self-employment and entrepreneurship activities by youth. This evidence illustrates the proportion of youth that are active in business ownership and self-employment and presents evidence on the barriers to business creation and some of the key characteristics of those working in self-employment.

    • Self-employment and entrepreneurship activities by seniors,

      This chapter presents evidence on the self-employment and entrepreneurship activities of older people. It reports on the number and proportion of seniors involved in self-employment and the main characteristics of this type of employment. Evidence is also presented on the barriers to self-employment.

    • Location of entrepreneurship activities

      This chapter presents evidence on the proportion of entrepreneurs that operate from their home, a separate premise, a mobile business or other location across different stages of business start-up activity. Evidence on location of business activity is presented by gender and age.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Policies for inclusive entrepreneurship

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    • Policy support for entrepreneurship from unemployment,

      One route to entering the labour market from unemployment is through business creation. However, unemployed people face many barriers to self-employment, including less access to finance for business start-up and depreciating skills and networks. This chapter presents the common public policy approaches used in the EU to support unemployed people in creating businesses, including information, financial support before and after start-up, the use of role models, training, coaching and mentoring and business consultancy.

    • Policy support for entrepreneurship by ethnic minority groups,

      Ethnic minority groups are very active in entrepreneurship in many EU countries. This chapter reports on the level of entrepreneurship activities by ethnic minority groups and some of the key characteristics of these businesses. It also presents the main barriers to business start-up for potential ethnic minority entrepreneurs and actions that policy makers can take to support ethnic minority groups in overcoming these barriers. Inspiring practices from across the EU are presented to illustrate these actions.

    • Business development services for start-ups

      This chapter examines the role of business development support services in promoting and supporting business creation and self-employment among potential entrepreneurs from disadvantaged and under-represented groups. The chapter investigates the range of public and not-for-profit policy approaches in the European Union and makes recommendations on how to strengthen such support.

    • Social security and inclusive entrepreneurship,

      Social security systems can influence business creation decisions even though their overall objectives do not normally include the promotion of entrepreneurship. The costs and benefits of social security for the employed and the self-employed differ and this often has the effect of lower levels of coverage for the self-employed. This chapter considers the ways in which social security affects inclusive entrepreneurship and the policy approaches which have been made to mitigate perverse effects of social security systems on self-employment and business creation.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Country profiles

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    • Data and inspiring practices in inclusive entrepreneurship policy

      This chapter presents inspiring policy practices from 28 EU member states together with a set of figures that benchmark key indicators for entrepreneurship and self-employment in under-represented and disadvantaged groups against the European Union averages.

    • Austria: Business Start-up Programme (UGP – Unternehmensgründungsprogramm)

      Description: The Business Start-up Programme (UGP – Unternehmensgründungsprogramm) of the Austrian Public Employment Service (AMS – Arbeitsmarktservice) is an integrated support offer that provides business advice and consulting from external management consultants, tailored training, and a start-up allowance (for living expenses) during the period of setting-up a business. The target client group is unemployed people who have a business idea as well as relevant professional abilities.

    • Belgium: Stebo

      Description: Stebo ( is a non-profit organisation that develops and delivers projects, services and initiatives to address social and economic exclusion including access to the labour market, housing and education. This includes supporting entrepreneurs from disadvantaged groups, such as recent migrants, with information services, training, coaching and support with networking and project development.

    • Bulgaria: Social entrepreneurship – Popularisation and support for social enterprises

      Description: This scheme aims to support the creation of social capital through the creation and development of social enterprises that realise projects that improve management and business skills through motivational training and individual advisory services. The support is targeted at people with disabilities, persons who have served a prison sentence, single parents, members of minority ethnic groups, people living in institutions, persons suffering from addiction, and long-term unemployed people.

    • Croatia: "It's time for women"

      Description: The project "It’s time for women" supports unemployed women in re-entering the labour market through training for self-employment. It was implemented in counties affected by the war, where the unemployment levels of women remain higher than the Croatian average.

    • Cyprus: The Grant Scheme for the Enhancement of Youth Entrepreneurship

      Description: The Grant Scheme for the Enhancement of Youth Entrepreneurship offers financial support in the form of grants coupled with start-up and small business management training to young people between the ages of 20 and 39 who seek to start and develop their own businesses. Its primary aim is to alleviate unemployment among graduates but it also supports women re-entering the job market (with an age limit of 55).

    • Czech Republic: Build your own enterprise as a way to connect work with childcare

      Description: "Build your own enterprise as a way to connect work with childcare" is a project that supports entrepreneurship for parents on or exiting parental leave. The aim of the project is to provide information on self-employment and business start-up to parents to support them in business creation. The project was implemented in the capital city of Prague between 1 June 2011 and 31 May 2013.

    • Denmark: Promoting entrepreneurship in Bornholm

      Description: This project in Bornholm aims to stimulate business creation to rejuvenate the regional economy to stop the outmigration of young people who leave seeking education and employment opportunities. The Business Centre Bornholm (BCB) provides training and advice for those seeking to set-up businesses.

    • Estonia: ETNA Microcredit scheme for women entrepreneurs in rural areas

      Description: This microfinance scheme is targeted at self-employed women and female-owned micro-enterprises in rural areas of Estonia. The project aims to establish loan groups in 10 rural regions for women who are starting or developing businesses and provides mentoring and training support. It was established by ETNA, an Estonian non-profit association of rural women-entrepreneurs.

    • Finland: Women's Enterprise Agency

      Description: The mission of the Women’s Enterprise Agency is to promote female entrepreneurship and support women entrepreneurs in developing their businesses and creating networks. The Agency provides diverse services for female-led start-ups including information provision and referrals, training, mentoring and advisory services. Established in 1996, the Agency currently operates an all-female staff of 5 in two offices (Helsinki and Tampere) and is one of the 32 enterprise agencies that form the Finnish Enterprise Agencies network (the other agencies have a specific regional, rather than a demographic focus).

    • France: Guarantee funds for the creation, take-over or development of companies initiated by women

      Description: The Fonds de garantie à l’initiative des femmes (FGIF), part of the national Guarantee Funds scheme, encourages the creation, take-over and development of companies by women. The state provides a loan guarantee, through France Active Garantie to facilitate the granting of bank loans to women who wish to create or develop their business.

    • Germany: Schüler-Institut für Technik und angewandte Informatik (SITI)

      Description: The Students’ Institute for Technology and Applied ICT (SITI), founded in 1999, is a pioneer in the field of entrepreneurship education and in the promotion of innovation and technology skills among young students, mainly from secondary schools (aged 10-18). SITI’s primary aim is to support the personal and skill development of young people in technology-oriented fields, in order to develop opportunities for a career, particularly self-employment, in innovative sectors of the economy.

    • Greece: Social co-operatives for persons with mental health problems

      Description: The establishment of the Social Co-operatives of Limited Liability (KoiSPE) in 1999 under (Article 12), is a specific form of a co-operative organisation (i.e. social enterprise), which serves both economic and social purposes. It aims to improve the socio-economic re-integration and vocational re-insertion of persons with mental health problems, contributing both to their rehabilitation and to their economic self-sufficiency.

    • Hungary: MeXX Programme, 2004-09

      Description: The main goal of the MeXX Programme was to assist unemployed women in entering the labour market through self-employment and to support female entrepreneurs who were already established. More specifically, the programme targets women with small children or those on maternity leave, pregnant women, and women older than 40 years. The scheme provided a comprehensive support package consisting of training, personal and peer-based mentoring and consultancy services. These components were designed to boost self-confidence and to support the development of communication and business skills.

    • Ireland: National Women's Enterprise Day

      Description: National Women’s Enterprise Day is an annual event that started in 2008. It is organised by the 35 City and Country Enterprise Boards (CEBs) and co-financed by the European Social Fund, with support from the Department of Justice and Equality. The aim is to encourage female entrepreneurs and to support them in developing their networks and improving their skills.

    • Italy: Starting a business (as part of Giovanisì strategy in Tuscany)

      Description: In 2011, the Tuscany regional government set-up an integrated strategy to improve the transition into the labour market for youth. This strategy, Giovanisì, aims to address both short-term challenges in response to the recent economic crisis and longer-term development and demographic challenges. The strategy has four priority targets: students; postgraduates and researchers; youth not in employment, education and training (i.e. NEETs); and potential entrepreneurs. Giovanisì’s policies promoting entrepreneurship are organised as a programme called Starting a Business.

    • Latvia: Business incubators in the Latvian regions

      Description: The scheme Business incubators in the Latvian regions supports the establishment of business incubators in disadvantaged and rural regions to support entrepreneurs in setting-up and developing their business. The aim of the policy is to stimulate economic development of the Latvian regions outside of Riga. These incubators provide discounted business development services and facilities to businesses in the early stages of development.

    • Lithuania: First business year baskets for youth

      Description: The project First business year baskets was implemented in Lithuania from May 2011 to July 2013 to support people under the age of 29 in business creation. It offered a menu of business development services and participants received an allotment of vouchers that could be used to "purchase" some of the available support services.

    • Luxembourg: Jonk Entrepreneuren Luxembourg

      Description: The public-private initiative Jonk Entrepreneuren Luxembourg (Young entrepreneurs in Luxembourg) aims to increase students’ interest in entrepreneurship. It aims to promote entrepreneurship and self-employment as an alternative to paid employment for young people and promote innovative behaviour among young people through a wide range of activities including group projects and "mini companies".

    • Malta: The Hands-on project

      Description: The Hands-on project was designed to develop entrepreneurship skills among students with special needs attending Guardian Angel Secondary Education Resource Centre and Dun Manwel Attard Young Adult Education Resource Centre in Malta. The project provides training for educators at the two schools and supports them in delivering the training programme to students.

    • Netherlands: "IkStartSmart" Gelderland

      Description: The programme IkStartSmart ("I Start Smart") is an integrated support programme for people in the province of Gelderland who wish to start a business or develop an existing business that is less than 5 years old.

    • Poland: Solidarity between Generations

      Description: The government of Poland has a programme entitled Solidarity between Generations: Measures to Increase Labour Force Participation of People Aged 50+. This programme is planned for the years 2009-20 and aims to provide a variety of activities to improve the quality of life for mature people, organised by the public or publicly funded institutions, and including support for entrepreneurship.

    • Portugal: Best form – Boosting entrepreneurship tools for migrants

      Description: This project transferred, applied and disseminated a Community-Based Business Support (CBBS) model that was developed in the United Kingdom. It was developed and co-ordinated by Sociedade Portuguesa de Inovação (SPI) and ran between 2010 and 2012. The focus of the project was to support entrepreneurship activities by immigrant communities by improving the abilities of business advisers to address specific challenges faced by the immigrant communities and training new business advisers who come from immigrant communities.

    • Romania: A chance for those in rural areas

      Description: This 3-year project started in August 2010 and aims to promote entrepreneurial culture in rural areas by creating conditions for the development of profitable non-agricultural enterprises. This project covers the rural areas from the North-West Region and Centre Region of Romania and is implemented by two partner NGOs, Maramures Center for Development of SMEs and Harghita Center for Innovation and Business Incubation. Eligible participants are unemployed people who have worked in subsistence agriculture.

    • Slovak Republic: REGIONFEMME

      Description: REGIONFEMME is a project aimed at the support and training of women entrepreneurs in the western region of the Slovak Republic, near the Austrian border. The project operated between 2009 and 2013 and provided education and training, as well as business counselling. It was implemented in co-operation with the Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry – Bratislava Regional Chamber of Commerce and the Association of Women in Business. The project also partnered with the Wirtschaftskammer Wien in Austria.

    • Slovenia: Entrepreneurially into the world of business 2013

      Description: The project Entrepreneurially into the world of business 2013 was implemented in the framework of the Operational Programme for Human Resources Development for 2007-13. The project uses a combination of mentoring and training to help participants to acquire the core skills to launch and develop their business ideas. The target group for this project are highly educated unemployed individuals in Slovenia under the age of 35 who have a higher education, masters or doctoral degree, regardless of school or study programme.

    • Spain: Programa operativo de la Comunidad Foral de Navarra 2007-13 (Support for self-employment in Navarra 2007-13)

      Description: The aim of this scheme is to engage unemployed people in self-employment. The programme provides training, technical advice and financial support to launch a new business (up to EUR 10 000) for unemployed individuals who invested at least EUR 12 000 in long-term assets in the previous 6 months.

    • Sweden: Ambassadors for women's entrepreneurship

      Description: This project is one element of a more general policy to increase women’s interest and participation in entrepreneurship. The project aims to increase general knowledge on women’s entrepreneurship in society so that more women will create businesses. It is aimed at experienced (i.e. ambassadors) and potential women entrepreneurs, as well as the general public. The project includes a variety of actions, focussing on a group of women entrepreneur role models.

    • United Kingdom: Local Enterprise Growth Initiative (LEGI) programme

      Description: The Local Enterprise Growth Initiative (LEGI) programme ran from 2006 to March 2011. It aimed to release the economic and productivity potential of the most deprived local areas in England through entrepreneurship and investment and thus boosting local incomes and employment opportunities to build sustainable communities. The programme was based on national funding being provided to 20 deprived areas following a competitive tendering process. A local authority was eligible to apply for LEGI funding if it ranked among the 50 most deprived local authorities areas against the 2000 or 2004 Index of Multiple Deprivation indices. All bidders were required to provide an integrated support package and while the offerings varied widely, they often included a variety of support to enterprise and employment such as enterprise education, support with franchising opportunities, cluster and sector development, increased access to public procurement opportunities and attracting investment.

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