Research and development (R&D)

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Research and development (R&D) comprises creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of human knowledge and to devise new applications based upon it. The term R&D covers three activities: basic research, applied research and experimental development. Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed. The major part of the expenses that the government spends on R&D is used by private enterprises in all the Nordic countries. The rest of the R&D activities take place at universities and other institutions of higher education as well as in other public institutions. For more information:

Keywords:  phd, research and development, patents, r&d

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  • Patents

    This indicator shows the number of patents granted per million inhabitants.
  • PhD graduates

    This indicator shows the number of PhD graduates per million inhabitants in the Nordic region.
  • R&D staff

    This indicator shows the per cent of the labour force in the Nordic region who are employed as R&D staff in full time equivalents.
  • Government budget for R&D

    This indicator shows how many appropriations in per cent of GDP the R&D area receives in the Nordic region.
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