Research and development (R&D)

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Research and experimental development (R&D) comprises creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of human knowledge and to devise new applications based upon it. The term R&D covers three activities: basic research, applied research and experimental development. Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.

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Keywords:  university, industry, service, public, searcher, research, researcher, development, private

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  • Gross domestic spending on R&D

    Gross domestic spending on R&D is defined as the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D carried out by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc., in a country.
  • Researchers

    Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, etc. This indicator is measured in number of researchers and per 1 000 people.
  • Government researchers

    Government researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, etc. working in the public sector.
  • Triadic patent families

    A triadic patent family is defined as a set of patents registered in various countries (i.e. patent offices) to protect the same invention.
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