Research and development (R&D)

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Research and development (R&D) comprises creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of human knowledge and to devise new applications based upon it. The term R&D covers three activities: basic research, applied research and experimental development. Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed. The major part of the expenses that the government spends on R&D is used by private enterprises in all the Nordic countries. The rest of the R&D activities take place at universities and other institutions of higher education as well as in other public institutions. For more information:

Keywords:  phd, research and development, patents, r&d

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Nordic Council of Ministers

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This indicator shows the number of patents granted per million inhabitants in the Nordic region. All direct applications to the European Patent Office (EPO) are taken into account, but among the PCT applications (The Patent Cooperation Treaty) made to the EPO only those that have entered into the regional phase are counted. As PCT patent applications in the international phase designating the EPO will not be included in the calculation of patent applications to the EPO. Applications filed are not necessarily granted the following year as the processing time can be up to several years. The PCT is an international patent law treaty. It provides a unified procedure for filing patent applications to protect inventions in each of its contracting states. A patent application filed under the PCT is called an international application, or PCT application. The national and regional phase of PCT applications is entered after 30 months from the filing date of the international application or from the earliest priority date of the application if a priority is claimed. It is possible to enter the European regional phase at 31 months from the earliest priority date. National and regional phases can also be started earlier on the express request of the applicant. For more information:

Keywords:  innovation, entrepreneurship, patent
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