Job Creation and Local Economic Development

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19 Nov 2014
Pages:
364
ISBN:
9789264215009 (PDF) ;9789264211315(print)
DOI: 
10.1787/9789264215009-en

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This publication highlights new evidence on policies to support job creation, bringing together the latest research on labour market, entrepreneurship and local economic development policy to help governments support job creation in the recovery. It  also includes  a set of country pages featuring, among other things, new data on skills supply and demand at the level of smaller OECD regions (TL3).

This publication is the first in a series to take this integrative approach, and it is designed to be user friendly and accessible to all government officials, academics, practitioners and civil society with an interest in local economic development and job creation.

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  • Preface

    The OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Programme’s first biennial publication tackles a question that is at the top of government agendas: how to create more and better quality jobs. Addressing this question is a key aspect of the OECD’s efforts not just to strengthen the recovery, but also to make our economies and societies more resilient.

  • Foreword and Acknowledgements

    It is with great pleasure that we are publishing the first edition of Job Creation and Local Economic Development, a landmark publication for the LEED Programme. For over 30 years, the OECD Programme on Local Economic and Employment Development has worked to fulfil its mission of contributing to the creation of more and better jobs through effective policy implementation, innovative practices, stronger capacities and integrated strategies at the local level. For the first time, this publication brings together the most recent findings from LEED across the areas of employment and skills, entrepreneurship, social inclusion and local development in one place.

  • Executive summary

    Creating more and better quality jobs is key to boosting growth, reducing poverty and increasing social cohesion. At national level, job creation requires a stable macroeconomic framework coupled with structural policies that encourage innovation, skills and business development. But how can national and local policies be better aligned and tailored to specific local opportunities and challenges?

  • Reader's guide

    Job Creation and Local Economic Development 2014 is the first edition of the OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Programme’s biennial publication. This publication highlights new evidence on policies to support local job creation across LEED’s areas of work, including labour market, entrepreneurship, and local economic development policy. It draws from LEED research to identify common issues that local areas face, general lessons and promising approaches, and examples of programmes and policies that are emblematic of strong local responses. As it cuts across the various output areas of the LEED Programme, it is intended to complement and add value to LEED’s more specific and in-depth publications.

  • Setting the framework for local job creation

    In the recovery it will be important to build new jobs from the bottom up through putting in place the right local conditions for job creation and expansion. Getting the governance right at the local level is important, and this often means better reconciling local and national policy goals and objectives. This introductory chapter sets out a new integrated approach to building productive local economies which host skilled and entrepreneurial workers. Economic development policies, labour market policies, policies to support entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship, and education and training policies all have a role to play. This chapter explores how these policy areas can be brought together most effectively to contribute to the common goals of job creation, social cohesion and resilience.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts How labour market policies and training can help

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    • Aligning local employment, skills and economic development policies

      At the local level, there are a diverse range of actors working in the fields of employment, skills and economic development. Regional variations in the supply and demand of skills mean that local level actors need to be equipped with the right tools and resources to develop innovative job creation strategies tailored to local conditions. Successful strategies to build better quality jobs require integrated actions across a number of portfolios. Partnerships are being used across the OECD to better connect local level leaders, who can leverage their resources, expertise, and knowledge to develop place-based responses to structural adjustment and local economic development. Such partnership approaches require a degree of local flexibility in the implementation of national policies to be successful. This chapter explores what governance tools are being used to support joined up policy delivery, and how these efforts are contributing to more inclusive growth.

    • Building a flexible and responsive skills system

      Across the OECD, policy makers are seeking new ways of creating quality jobs. The nature of jobs is changing and this means that individuals must play increasing attention to their level of skills to ensure they remain resilient to long-term changes in the labour market. Employment and training agencies play a critical role in equipping individuals with the appropriate skills for the labour markets of today and in the future. Supporting job creation requires efforts to ensure that the skills being produced align with demand. This chapter explores new policy responses to better connect the employment and training system to individual and employer demands.

    • Escaping the low skills equilibrium trap

      To support job creation and increase productivity, employment and skills agencies need to focus not only on the acquisition of skills, but also the better utilisation of skills in the workplace. There is considerable variation in the supply and demand for skills at the local level. Some regions experience a situation known as "low skills equilibrium" where low levels of skills in the population are met by a low level of demand for skills from employers. Policy makers can help to drive up skills demand and utilisation in such regions through providing technical assistance and management training, and through embedding skills policies in broader mechanisms for business support and strategic development. A wide number of local stakeholders can be involved, including employer associations, universities, vocational training institutions and unions.

    • Overcoming barriers to employment

      In order for all to benefit from new jobs growth, interventions are required to overcome the multi-faceted barriers that some people confront to accessing employment. These barriers can be immediate (such as lack of childcare) and more entrenched (such as drugs and health problems). This chapter highlights cross-sector initiatives that have been put in place to tackle more entrenched issues, focusing on particular populations (such as recent immigrants) and particular places (such as areas of deprivation in cities). Employers are important partners, to make workplaces better adapted to people with particular needs, and to reduce discrimination. At a time of widespread government austerity, new sources of finance and new methods of service delivery may be needed to ensure that resource intensive and long-term support is still available to those that need it.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Building jobs through entrepreneurship and enterprise creation

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    • Building entrepreneurship skills

      This chapter presents the importance of entrepreneurship skills in increasing the quality of business start-ups, which improves their chances of success and likelihood of contributing to job creation and economic growth. In particular, it focuses on the role that public policy can play in facilitating the acquisition of these skills through formal education and active labour market policies. It also highlights areas where local governments can contribute to this agenda through local entrepreneurship training programmes, coaching and mentoring programmes and business development support services. The chapter stresses the importance of delivering support through partnerships, especially when the target clients are groups that are under-represented or disadvantaged in entrepreneurship, such as women, youth, seniors, ethnic minority and migrant groups, people with disabilities and the unemployed.

    • Stimulating high-growth firms and local entrepreneurial ecosystems

      This chapter introduces the role of high-growth firms – firms which grow quickly over a short period of time – in local job creation. In particular, it presents information on the local distribution of high-growth firms in four OECD countries and on the dynamics by which local entrepreneurial ecosystems influence the presence of high-growth firms at the local level. The chapter points to three significant areas for policy intervention: i) framework conditions such as product market regulation, taxation and employment protection legislation which affect business growth in general; ii) policies supporting the local entrepreneurial ecosystem through close dialogue between public and private sector institutions in areas such as financing and education; iii) schemes specifically targeted to high-growth firms like business accelerators that develop management skills through advice, mentoring and peer learning.

    • Job creation in the social economy and social entrepreneurship

      This chapter looks specifically at the role of the social economy in job creation. Policy makers are paying increased attention to the social economy and social entrepreneurship following the financial crisis, and in the context of rising social inequalities in many OECD countries. Defining the scope and scale of these activities remains difficult, but their contribution to job creation and inclusion of disadvantaged people in the labour market is substantial and widely recognised. A number of barriers inhibit the creation and growth of social economy organisations. Accordingly, a supportive policy environment is needed to help social enterprises meet their objectives, including the creation of quality jobs. Such an environment should recognise and support social economy organisations and social enterprises as full economic agents, alongside the private and the public sector.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Local economic strategies and systems

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    • New growth and investment strategies – creating jobs and opportunity

      This chapter explores the challenges that local economies are confronting in the pursuit of viable economic growth and job creation in the aftermath of the global financial crisis and the protracted economic slowdown. It identifies how local economies are re-engineering themselves towards increased productivity and growth within this new global economic paradigm, increasing trade with emerging markets, and better defining the economic niches in which they are most productive. The evidence shows that local economies matter a great deal to nations, acting as cylinders to national growth engines, and offering opportunities for economic diversification and re-balancing. The chapter outlines best practice strategies for growth and investment, and highlights the role that strong and decisive local leaders can play in developing longer term economic visions, implementing policy innovations, and integrating investments across diverse areas such as transport, skills, land, arts, sciences and services.

    • Managing demographic transitions in local labour markets

      Demographic changes will have broad economic, social, and political impacts worldwide, with some local areas experiencing the effects of an ageing population, stagnation in population growth, or even shrinking populations particularly sharply. For these areas, the importance of strengthening economic and social resilience – as opposed to a singular focus on growth – is clear. Better managing and supporting older workers will become increasingly relevant, including creating opportunities for more flexible working later in life and easing transitions into retirement. Additionally, new economic opportunities will come from an increased demand for products and services oriented to the ageing population (the "silver" and "white" economies).

    • Seizing opportunities from green growth

      While most local economies continue to strive for economic growth, it is now widely recognised that global economic development is placing unsustainable pressures on the environment, including those leading to climate change. There are increasing calls for a decoupling of economic activities from environmental pressures and for a "greening" of production and consumption processes. Green growth will create challenges, such as the transition of workers from one sector to another, but also opportunities, in terms of economic diversification and innovation. Any real change in emissions will require a transformation in the way that people live and work, and local actors can play an important role in driving forward this transformation. Local flexibility in education and training systems is also important as green growth, particularly in its early stages, has tended to be concentrated in certain localities and regions.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Country profiles

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    • Australia

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2011, 24 labour force regionsPopulation density can vary significantly across Australian regions. were in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (the percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (the percentage of medium and high skills occupations).GVA, income and wages were not available at this geographical level. The highest level of skills supply and demand is observed in Lower Northern Sydney and Inner Melbourne. Twenty-five labour force regions were in "low skills equilibrium", where a low skills supply is matched by a low skills demand.

    • Austria

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. Out of the 9 regions, Vienna, Lower Austria and Vorarlberg were found to be in "high skills equilibrium" in 2011, with a high supply of skills (the percentage of people with post-secondary education) matched by a high skills demand (the percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). In contrast, three regions – Styria, Carinthia and Burgenland – found themselves in a situation of "low skills equilibrium", where a low skills supply is matched by a low demand.

    • Belgium

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2010 five sub-regions (Antwerp, Brussels Capital region, East Flanders, Flemish Brabant and Walloon Brabant) could be found in "high skills equilibrium" where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high demand for skills (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). In contrast, West Flanders, Hainault, Liege province, Luxembourg province and Limburg were in "low skills equilibrium", where a low skills supply is matched by a low skills demand.

    • Canada

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2011, 28 economic regions in CanadaDue to lack of data, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut economic regions are not included in the skills analysis. were found in a situation of "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (the percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (the percentage of medium and high skills occupations and income). Twenty-five economic regions were in "low skills equilibrium", where a low supply of skills is matched by a low demand for skills. (Note that a number of these regions have small populations).

    • Chile

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2012, four administrative divisions of Chile, Antofagasta, Magallanes y Antártica, the Metropolitan Region of Santiago and Los Lagos, were in "high skills equilibrium" where high skills supply (the percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high demand (the percentage of medium and high skills occupations).GVA, income and wages were not available at this geographical level. Some skills mismatches can be noted: a skills surplus can be observed in the Tarapacá, Atacama, Valparaíso and Arica Y Parinacota regions. In contrast skills deficits can be observed in the Bió-Bió, Araucanía, Los Rios and Aysén regions.

    • Czech Republic

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2010, the sub-regions of Prague, Central-Bohemia, Hradec Králové region, Zlín region, South-Moravia and the Moravia-Silesia are all in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (the percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (the percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Six regions were in "low skills equilibrium" where a low supply of skills is matched by a low skills demand.

    • Denmark

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2011 the Capital Region was in "high skills equilibrium", with a high supply of skills (the percentage of people with post-secondary education) matched by a high skills demand (the percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Zealand and Northern Jutland were in "low skills equilibrium", where a low supply of skills is matched by a low skills demand. Central Jutland and South Denmark experienced a skills surplus, where skills supply exceeds demand.

    • Estonia

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2011 both North Estonia – including the capital city Tallinn – and South Estonia were in a "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) was matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GDP per worker).

    • Finland

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2008 seven sub-regions could be found in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (the percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (the percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Seven regions were found to be in "low skills equilibrium", where a low skills supply is matched by a low skills demand.

    • France

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2009 there were 37 departments in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) was matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Forty departments could be found in "low skills equilibrium", where a low supply of skills was matched by low skills demand. A further 19 departments had a skills mismatch, with 11 being in a situation of "skills surplus", with a higher skills supply than demand.

    • Greece

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2011, Crete and Attica – the region of the capital city – are the only two sub-regions in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). The sub-regions of East Macedonia and Thrace, the Ionian Island as well as Peloponnesus found themselves in "low skills equilibrium", where a low supply of skills is matched by a low demand for skills. West Macedonia, Central Greece and the South Aegean region all show a skills deficit.

    • Hungary

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2011 eight sub-regions were in a "high skills equilibrium" where a high skills supply (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Six sub-regions were in a"low skills equilibrium", where a low skills supply is matched by a low skills demand.

    • Ireland

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand in the 8 sub-regions of Ireland. In 2012, three sub-regions, Dublin, the Mid-East and the South-West, were in a "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations).GVA, income and wages were not available at this geographical level. The Border, Midland and the South-East were in a "low skills equilibrium", where low skills supply is matched by low skills demand. The Mid-West was in skills deficit while the West showed a skills surplus.

    • Israel

      The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

    • Italy

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand across provinces in Italy in 2009. The north is characterised by "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (the percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (the percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker), and skills deficits. The south is characterised by "low skills equilibrium", where a low skills supply is matched by a low skills demand, and skills surplus, where skills supply exceeds demand.

    • Japan

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand across 47 prefectures in Japan. In 2010, 15 prefectures were in a "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (the percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (the percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). These places include the most populated prefectures of Tokyo, Kanagawa, Osaka and Aichi. Seventeen prefectures, including Hokkaido, Aomori and Okinawa can be found in a "low skills equilibrium" where low skills supply is matched by low skills demand. Seven prefectures showed skills deficit where skills demand exceeds supply, and nine prefectures showed skills surplus.

    • Korea

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand across 16 sub-regions. In 2010, five sub-regions – Seoul, Gwangju, Daejeon, Ulsan and Gyeonggi-do – were in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Six sub-regions were in a "low skills equilibrium" where a low supply of skills is matched by a low skills demand.

    • Latvia

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand in the six Latvian regions. In 2011, the three regions situated in the western part of the country were found to be in a "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). The three regions in the East, are in a "low skills equilibrium", where a low skills demand is matched by low skills supply. Interestingly none of the regions was found in a situation of either skills deficit or skills surpluses.

    • Lithuania

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand in the 10 counties of Lithuania. In the 2011, three counties were found in a situation of "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high demand for skills (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). High skills equilibrium could be found in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipeda counties. Another four counties – Alytus, Marijampole, Panevezys and Taurage – were in a "low skills equilibrium", where a low supply of skills is matched by a low demand for skills.

    • Mexico

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2010 fourteen federal entities were in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and wages). The same number of regions could be found in "low skills equilibrium", where a low supply of skills is matched by a low demand.

    • Netherlands

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2010 five sub-regions fell into a "high skills equilibrium" where high skills supply (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). These regions are Utrecht, Noord-Holland, Zuid-Holland (the area of Rotterdam), Groningen and Noord-Braabant. Six regions fell into a "low skills equilibrium", where a low skills supply is matched by low skills demand.

    • New Zealand

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2013 five sub-regions – Wellington, Auckland, Waikato, Canterbury and Otago – were in "high skills equilibrium" where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and average weekly income). Taranaki was in a skills deficit, while Manawatu-Wanganui was in a skills surplus. Northland, Gisborne, Hawke’s Bay, the West Coast and Southland were in "low skills equilibrium", where low skills supply is matched by low skills demand.

    • Norway

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. Seven sub-regions are in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Møre og Romsdal is the only sub-region experiencing skills deficit. Three sub-regions are in a skills surplus, where skills supply appears to exceed demand.

    • Poland

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2011, 23 sub-regions were in "high skills equilibrium" where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Among these, the highest level of skills supply and demand could be observed in the cities of Warsaw, Poznan, as well as in Trojmiejski. A total of 25 sub-regions were in "low skills equilibrium", where a low skills supply is matched by a low skills demand.

    • Portugal

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2010, Lisbon and Alentejo are in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Central Portugal and the Islands of Azores are in "low skills equilibrium", where a low supply of skills is matched by a low demand for skills. The Islands of Madeira have a skills deficit, meaning that the demand for skills outstrips the supply, while North Portugal and Algarve are in skills surplus (the supply of skills exceeds demand).

    • Romania

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2011, 15 sub-regions were in "high skills equilibrium" where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Among these sub-regions, the highest level of skills supply and demand could be observed in the sub-regions of Bucharest, Timis, Cluj and Brasov. Sixteen sub-regions were in "low skills equilibrium" (where a low skills supply is matched by a low demand) and 11 were in skills mismatches.

    • Slovak Republic

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand. In 2011, two sub-regions – Bratislava, the capital region, and Trnava, the sub-region bordering Bratislava – were in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Both demand-side indicators in these regions are significantly higher compared to other regions. The sub-regions of Trenčín and Žilina suffer skills deficit (where skills demand exceeds supply). The regions of Banská Bystrica and Prešov are in skills surplus (where skills supply exceeds demand). Nitra and Košice were in "low skills equilibrium", where a low supply of skills is matched by low demand for skills.

    • Slovenia

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand among the 12 Slovenian sub-regions. In 2011 five sub-regions were in "high skills equilibrium" where a high skills supply (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of people with medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). One of them is Central Slovenia, the region of the capital city. Inner Carniola-Karst sub-region is in skills surplus (where supply of skills exceeds demand) while Savinja, Lower Sava and Southeast Slovenia sub-regions are in skills deficit. Mura, Carinthia and Central Sava sub-regions are in "low skills equilibrium", where low skills supply is matched by low demand.

    • South Africa

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand across the nine regions of South Africa. In 2012 three regions were in "high skills equilibrium" where a high skills supply (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of people with medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Among these, Gauteng and Western Cape have a particularly high skills supply, while Free State is slightly above the national average in terms of both skills supply and demand. Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal were in "low skills equilibrium" (where low skills supply is matched by low demand). Among the four regions in skills mismatch, Limpopo and Mpumalanga were in skills surplus, where supply exceeds demand. Northern Cape and North West showed skills deficits.

    • Spain

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand in the 19 regions of Spain. In 2010, nine regions in the northern part of the country were in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Southern regions and Galicia are in "low skills equilibrium", where low skills supply is matched by low demand. The Valencian Community is the only region presenting a skills surplus, where supply exceeds demand.

    • Sweden

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand in twenty-one sub-regions in Sweden. In 2011, Stockholm, Uppsala, Örebro, Västmanlands, Skåne and Västra Götalands were in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and regional GDP). Six sub-regions were in "low skills equilibrium", where low skills supply is matched by low skills demand.

    • Switzerland

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand in the 26 cantons of Switzerland. In 2010 eleven cantons were in "high skills equilibrium" including Bern, Geneva, Zurich, Basel and Neuchâtel, where a high skills supply (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). Eight cantons were in "low skills equilibrium", such as Freiburg, Glarus and Thurgau, where a low skills supply is matched by a low of skills demand.

    • Turkey

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand in Turkey’s 26 regions. Nine out of eleven regions in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (the percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker) are in the western part of the country. Two regions were in skills surplus (where skills supply exceeds demand) and three regions were in skills deficit (where skills demand exceeds supply). The remaining regions are in "low skills equilibrium", where a low supply of skills is matched by low skills demand.

    • United Kingdom

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand in the sub-regions of the United Kingdom in 2011.Northern Ireland could not be included in the skills analysis of the United Kingdom due to differences in data collection methods. Due to lack of data Eilean Siar, Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands are not included in the skills analysis. Much of the South was in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and GVA per worker). In contrast, areas of South West Scotland, Northern England, the Midlands, and Wales were in "low skills equilibrium", where a low supply of skills is matched by low demand. Western Scotland was in skills surplus, where the skills supply exceeds demand.

    • United States

      shows where conditions are ripe for quality job creation due to high skills supply and high skills demand in the 50 states and Washington, DC.The format of this publication prohibited the inclusion of county level analysis, but it is available upon request. In 2012, fourteen states plus Washington D.C. were found to be in "high skills equilibrium", where a high supply of skills (percentage of people with post-secondary education) is matched by a high skills demand (percentage of medium and high skills occupations and income). Nineteen states, were in "low skills equilibrium", where a low supply of skills is matched by low skills demand.

    • Country profile methodology

      This section provides guidance for the interpretation of the country profiles. It presents the methodology used to build indicators of skills supply and demand and defines the other indicators used in the analysis including innovation, unemployment, youth unemployment and long-term population change. Limitations in terms of cross-country comparability and data availability are also discussed.

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