Research and development (R&D)

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Research and development (R&D) comprises creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of human knowledge and to devise new applications based upon it. The term R&D covers three activities: basic research, applied research and experimental development. Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed. The major part of the expenses that the government spends on R&D is used by private enterprises in all the Nordic countries. The rest of the R&D activities take place at universities and other institutions of higher education as well as in other public institutions. For more information:

Keywords:  phd, research and development, patents, r&d

Government budget for R&D You or your institution have access to this content

Nordic Council of Ministers

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This indicator shows how many appropriations in per cent of GDP the R&D area receives in the Nordic region. Data covers Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays on R&D (GBAORD). GBAORD data is measuring government support to R&D activities, or, in other words, how much priority Governments place on the public funding of R&D. Data refers to budget provisions, not to actual expenditure. GBAORD data is built up by using the guidelines laid out in the Proposed standard practise for surveys of research and experimental development - the Frascati Manual, OECD, 2002. At national level R&D and GBAORD data is compiled by the national statistical authorities. The currency is converted from euro (EUR) to EUR in Purchasing Power Parities (PPP), which eliminates the impact of differences in price levels among the Nordic countries. For more information:

Keywords:  government spending, expenditure, government budget, research and development, development, research, government
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