Entrepreneurship at a Glance

2226-6941 (online)
2226-6933 (print)
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Entrepreneurship at a Glance is an annual publication that presents an original collection of indicators for measuring the state of entrepreneurship along with explanations of the policy context and interpretation of the data.
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Entrepreneurship at a Glance 2015

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05 Aug 2015
9789264236479 (HTML) ; 9789264240605 (EPUB) ; 9789264232211 (PDF) ;9789264232204(print)

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Entrepreneurship at a Glance, a product of the OECD-Eurostat Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme, presents an original collection of indicators for measuring the state of entrepreneurship, along with key facts and explanations of the policy context. The 2015 edition features a special chapter on the international activities of SMEs.

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  • Foreword

    Entrepreneurship at a Glance presents key indicators on entrepreneurship. Until recently, most entrepreneurship research relied on ad hoc data compilations developed to support specific projects and virtually no official statistics on the subject existed. The collection of harmonised indicators presented in this publication is the result of the OECD-Eurostat Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme (EIP). The programme, started in 2006, was the first attempt to compile and publish international data on entrepreneurship from official government statistical sources. From the outset a key feature in the development of these indicators has been to minimise compilation costs for national statistical offices and also, critically, reporting burdens on business, which is why the programme focuses attention on exploiting existing sources of data instead of developing new business surveys.

  • Executive summary

    Entrepreneurship at a Glance contains a wide range of internationally comparable measures of entrepreneurship designed to inform analysis and policy on entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs, reflecting their important contribution to innovation, employment and growth.

  • Reader's guide

    This publication presents indicators of entrepreneurship collected by the OECD-Eurostat Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme (EIP). Started in 2006, the programme develops multiple measures of entrepreneurship and its determinants according to a conceptual framework that distinguishes between the manifestation of entrepreneurship, the factors that influence it, and the impacts of entrepreneurship on the economy. A defining characteristic of the programme is that it does not provide a single composite measure of overall entrepreneurship within an economy. Rather, recognising its multi-faceted nature, the programme revolves around a suite of indicators of entrepreneurial performance that each provide insights into one or more of these facets. Perhaps most importantly is the recognition within the programme that entrepreneurship is not only about start-ups or the numbers of self-employed for example: entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial forces can be found in many existing businesses and understanding the dynamism these actors exert on the economy is as important as understanding the dynamics of start-ups or the self-employed.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Recent developments in entrepreneurship

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    • New enterprise creations

      In most countries, with the exception of Germany, Italy and Finland, new enterprise creations have been on an upward trend since the height of the crisis, particularly in Australia and the United Kingdom, and in Denmark, -Portugal and Sweden in more recent periods. In many Euro area economies new creations remain, however, below pre-crisis levels.

    • Bankruptcies

      Bankruptcies in most countries have been trending downwards in recent years, with rates in Canada, Japan, the United States and South Africa significantly below pre-crisis levels.

    • Self-employment

      Self-employment levels across countries have exhibited varying and diverging trends in the wake of the crisis, reflecting, in part, differences in the impact of the crisis on employment, the regulatory environment and the mechanisms used to mitigate the effects of the crisis.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Structure and performance of the enterprise population

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    • Enterprises by size

      In all countries between 70% and 95% of all firms are micro-enterprises, i.e. firms with less than ten persons employed. Moreover, among micro-enterprises a very large share consists of non-employer firms, i.e. enterprises with no employees.

    • Employment by enterprise size

      There are significant variations across countries in the distribution of employment among enterprises of different sizes. In Spain, Portugal and Italy more than 40% of employment is in micro-enterprises (enterprises with less than ten persons employed) and almost 60% in Greece, while in Japan this share is around 13%.

    • Value added by enterprise size

      In most countries, enterprises with more than 250 -persons employed account for a considerable part of the value added of the business sector despite representing less than 1% of businesses. However, the share of value added created by large enterprises varies significantly across countries, partly reflecting economic size, with almost 70% in Mexico and around 16% in Luxembourg.

    • Turnover by enterprise size

      In OECD countries, SMEs account on average for 60% of total turnover. Enterprises in size classes 10-19 and 20-49 account for the smallest share of turnover, 7% and 11% respectively.

    • Compensation of employees by enterprise size

      In most countries compensation of employees is the largest part of value added, particularly in SMEs, which tend to be less capital intensive than larger firms.

    • Productivity by enterprise size

      Firm size matters for productivity. Larger firms are on average more productive than smaller ones, particularly in the manufacturing sector, partly reflecting gains from increasing returns to scale, for instance through capital-intensive production. But smaller firms in some manufacturing sectors and countries often outperform larger pointing to competitive advantages in niche, high-brand or high intellectual property content activities.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Enterprise birth, death and survival

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    • Birth rate of employer enterprises

      Birth rates decreased in most countries in the aftermath of the crisis, remaining broadly stable since then. In some countries however, notably Italy, Korea, Portugal and the United States, rates have continued to decline, particularly in the United States where start-up rates in 2012 fell to one-third pre-crisis rates.

    • Death rate of employer enterprises

      The evolution of the death rate of employer enterprises over time tends to follow that of birth rates. Death rates decreased in several countries between 2007 and 2010, reflecting the parallel decline in birth rates, while, like birth rates, they picked-up in more recent years.

    • Churn rate of employer enterprises

      The churn rates of employer enterprises range on average between 10% and 20% in industry and between 15% and 30% in services and construction. Only a few countries show much lower (the Netherlands) or much higher (Brazil) churn rates.

    • Survival of employer enterprises

      In most countries more than half of start-ups fail within the first five years, varying from less than one in five firms in Lithuania to about two-thirds in Sweden.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts SMEs and International trade

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    • Trade concentration

      The top 100 exporting companies account for a significant share of exports in all countries, ranging from about one-quarter in Italy to over 80% in Luxembourg.

    • Trade by enterprise size

      In all countries, micro and small firms, i.e. enterprises with less than 10 and between 10 and 50 employees respectively, are responsible for a limited share of total exports even if they represent the majority among all exporting enterprises. The distribution of imports by enterprise size largely reflects export patterns, with large firms accounting for shares of total imports between 50% and 80%.

    • Trade with emerging economies

      SMEs typically export disproportionally more to neighbouring countries than large firms. Though, SME participation in trade with emerging economies is relevant in many countries, where large shares of SMEs trade with China and India.

    • Trade by enterprise ownership

      The share of exports and imports of foreign-owned firms is typically higher than their share in the total number of exporters and importers. In Hungary and the Slovak Republic, foreign-owned exporters account for more than 80% of the total value of exports and imports.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts The profile of the entrepreneur

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    • Gender differences in self-employment rates

      In OECD economies, two and a half times as many men as women are self-employed with paid employees.

    • Self-employment among the youth

      People under 25 have relatively low self-employment rates: around 4.4% and 7.2% on average in the OECD countries for women and men respectively. In Italy and Greece the self-employment rate among the youth is above 10% for both women and men.

    • Earnings from self-employment

      In 2011 self-employed women earned between 10 and 60% less than men across all countries, but over the period 2006 to 2011 the gap closed significantly in some, more than 10 percentage points in Belgium, Finland, Greece, Iceland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Determinants of entrepreneurship: Selected indicators

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    • Access to finance: Venture capital

      In the majority of countries, venture capital represents a very small percentage of GDP, e.g. often less than 0.05%. Exceptions are Israel and the United States, where the venture capital industry is more mature and represented respectively 0.38% and 0.28% of GDP in 2014. Venture capital investments in the United States accounted for more than 80% of the OECD total in 2014.

    • Market access: Trade barriers

      Explicit barriers to foreign direct investment (FDI) and tariff barriers to trade have decreased since 2008 in most countries. Exceptions are Korea, where tariff barriers increased slightly, and Brazil, where the increase concerned both explicit barriers to FDI and tariff barriers.

    • Culture: Entrepreneurial perceptions and attitudes

      In 2014, in several Southern European countries, Greece, Spain and Portugal in particular, the perceived capabilities were significantly higher than the perceived opportunities, probably reflecting an unfavourable economic context. On the contrary, in the emerging economies of Brazil and Indonesia, as well as in the United States, -Canada, Norway, Denmark and Mexico, perceived opportunities were relatively high.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Annexes

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    • Sources of data on timely indicators of entrepreneurship

      This Annex presents the sources and definitions used to develop the OECD Timely Indicators of Entrepreneurship; two separate tables refer to enterprise creations and bankruptcies respectively. The OECD Timely Indicators of Entrepreneurship database is available on http://dotstat.oecd.org/Index.aspx.

    • List of indicators of entrepreneurial determinants

      This Annex presents a comprehensive list of indicators of entrepreneurial determinants. The list draws from past work conducted by FORA (Denmark) for the annual report Quality Assessment of Entrepreneurship Indicators, which was discontinued in 2012. Indicators are classified into the six categories of determinants set by the OECD-Eurostat Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme: 1. Regulatory Framework; 2. Market Conditions; 3. Access to Finance; 4; Creation and Diffusion of Knowledge; 5. Entrepreneurial Capabilities; 6. Entrepreneurial Culture. For each indicator, a short description and the source of data are provided.

    • International comparability of venture capital data

      Aggregate data on venture capital provide useful information on trends in the venture capital industry. These data are typically compiled by national or regional Private Equity and Venture Capital Associations, often with the support of commercial data providers. The quality and availability of aggregate data on venture capital have improved considerably in recent years; international comparisons, however, remain complicated because of two main problems.

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