OECD Studies on Water

2224-5081 (online)
2224-5073 (print)
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Water is essential for economic growth, human health, and the environment. Yet governments around the world face significant challenges in managing their water resources effectively. The problems are multiple and complex: billions of people are still without access to safe water and adequate sanitation; competition for water is increasing among the different uses and users; and major investment is required to maintain and improve water infrastructure in OECD and non-OECD countries. This OECD series on water provides policy analysis and guidance on the economic, financial and governance aspects of water resources management. These aspects generally lie at the heart of the water problem and hold the key to unlocking the policy puzzle.

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Reforming Sanitation in Armenia

Reforming Sanitation in Armenia

Towards a National Strategy You do not have access to this content

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29 Sep 2017
9789264268982 (PDF) ;9789264268999(print)

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This report assesses the state of Armenia’s sanitation services, which are in poor shape, and proposes ways forward for reforming the sector by: ensuring equitable access by all and identifying solutions that work for the poorest and most remote communities; generating economies of scale and scope, and reducing both investment and operational costs for the efficient delivery of sanitation services; and moving towards sustainable cost recovery for the sanitation sector, by identifying how much funding can be mobilised from within the sector and how much external transfers are required. The state of Armenia’s sanitation services are inadequate, with 51% of the population in rural areas using unimproved facilities, causing direct damage to the environment and exposing inhabitants to health risks, and better access but degraded sewerage-system infrastructure in urban areas, posing health hazards due to potential cross-contamination between sewage and drinking water. According to preliminary estimates, EUR 2.6 billion of investments will be required to meet Armenia’s sanitation needs, with approximately EUR 1 billion needing to be spent in the next 7 to 10 years. Given the country’s current economic situation, this investment will have to be spread over time and targeted to avoid further deterioration of infrastructure and increase of the financing gap.

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  • Foreword and acknowledgements

    The objective of this study is to support the development of a Strategy on Sustainable Sanitation Sector Development and Construction of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for Armenia. It was conducted by the OECD within the framework of the National Policy Dialogue on Water Policy in Armenia in co-operation with the European Union Water Initiative (EUWI) facilitated by the OECD and UNECE. The work was financially supported by the European Union.

  • Abbreviations and acronyms
  • Executive summary

    Armenia’s sanitation services are inadequate. In rural areas, over half of the population use unimproved facilities, causing direct damage to the environment and exposing inhabitants to health risks. In urban areas, the situation is substantially better, with 96% of the population having access to improved facilities through the sewerage system. Yet, this figure hides the poor conditions of the network, which poses health hazards due to potential cross-contamination between sewage and drinking water. Furthermore, out of 20 existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), only four are currently functioning.

  • The state of sanitation services in Armenia, reform objectives and investment needs

    This chapter presents the current state of sanitation services in Armenia including environmental impact. It considers the status of sanitation services for rural and urban communities and residential, commercial and industrial users and also forecasts trends on the demand and supply side. The chapter considers the adequacy of service and operational considerations throughout the sanitation supply chain from collection, to treatment and discharge and reuse. This chapter analyses the investment needs for the sanitation sector in Armenia and considers objectives such as achieving universal coverage with “improved” sanitation and investment in new wastewater treatment facilities. It also considers the need for strategic investment to mitigate deterioration of existing infrastructure.

  • Reforming market structure arrangements for sanitation in Armenia

    This chapter describes the need for market reforms and discusses options available to the sanitation sector in Armenia. The chapter presents the fragmentation of the sanitation sector in Armenia and the impact this has on sector efficiency and impact upon public health and environmental performance as a key driver for reform. Five modes of service supply are explored with recommendations made on the implementation of the preferred model including the role of Government and incentives in the reform process.

  • Reforming financial arrangements for sanitation in Armenia

    This chapter presents the current situation with regard to financing of the sanitation sector in Armenia. The shortfall in available funds from existing traditional sources such as tariffs is presented with the chapter considering options for generating additional revenues from tariffs. The current public funds available for sanitation are discussed and options are considered for increasing funds through reform of existing funds or creation of new funds.

  • Accompanying legal and regulatory changes for sanitation in Armenia

    This chapter describes the current legal and contractual framework for sanitation services in Armenia and discusses the potential changes required to drive reform. The absence of comprehensive legal act to regulate the sanitation sector in Armenia is discussed and the need for the case for separation of sanitation related legislation in the water code presented. The chapter also describes the changes required for contractual frameworks for private sector operators and presents the case for the need for model contracts.

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