OECD Public Governance Reviews

2219-0414 (online)
2219-0406 (print)
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This series includes international studies and country-specific reviews of government efforts to make the public sector more efficient, effective, innovative and responsive to citizens’ needs and expectations. Publications in this series look at topics such as open government, preventing corruption and promoting integrity in the public service, risk management, illicit trade, audit institutions, and civil service reform. Country-specific reviews assess a public administration’s ability to achieve government objectives and preparedness to address current and future challenges. In analysing how a country's public administration works, reviews focus on cross-departmental co-operation, the relationships between levels of government and with citizens and businesses, innovation and quality of public services, and the impact of information technology on the work of government and its interaction with businesses and citizens.


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Open Government in Latin America

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17 Nov 2014
9789264223639 (PDF) ;9789264223608(print)

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Latin American governments have embarked upon substantial open government reforms in recent years. Working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), progress has been made. The OECD - as an official multilateral partner organisation of the OGP - has conducted a regional stocktaking exercise of open government strategies and practices. Its main findings are reflected in this report, allowing Latin American countries to compare and benchmark against good international practice.


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  • Foreword

    Open government cuts across a number of diverse domains and encompasses a wide range of principles and practices all aiming to make the relationship between governments and their constituencies more dynamic, mutually beneficial and based on reciprocal trust. Open government initiatives can help improving transparency, fostering public sector innovation, empowering people and making policy making processes more representative, inclusive and effective. Hence, open government can effectively contribute to increase the accountability of public institutions, their capacity to deliver services more in line with citizens’ and business’ demands, and to produce more economic and social benefits. As a result, open government is an important lever to maintain, or reinforce where needed, public trust.

  • Executive summary

    Open government policies, including initiatives in the fields of transparency, anti-corruption, public consultation and digital government have improved significantly in Latin America in recent years. The region has now a unique opportunity to consolidate this progress, improve overall impact on social and economic development, and move forward by using a more integrated and result-oriented approach.

  • Assessment and recommendations

    Latin American and Caribbean countries should aim to align existing policies and strategies with a general open government strategy. They should also move towards more comprehensive open government and open data strategies aiming to permeate other policy domains and foster the development of open government programmes at the sub-national level and across the central administration.

  • The context of open government in Latin America

    This chapter describes the context for open government in Latin America. It introduces the Open Government Partnership (OGP), its core principles and the OGP process. It then analyses recent reform efforts taken by Latin American countries and provides a picture of the region’s main challenges. In the last section, the chapter presents the frameworks to assess open government and open data policies and initiatives developed by the OECD and used to review the progresses and achievements in the region highlighted in this report.

  • Open government strategies and governance frameworks in Latin America

    Based on the results of the OECD Survey on Open Government in Latin American, this chapter evaluates the open government strategies and governance frameworks of eleven Latin American countries. It analyses open government achievements and challenges against the background of the creation of the Open Government Partnership in 2011 and provides a picture of the institutions in charge of open government. It finds that countries from the region have made great progress in defining and implementing open government strategies and programmes. But it also identifies the need to strengthen horizontal policy alignment and institutional leadership.

  • Access to public information in Latin America

    This chapter analyses legal, institutional and policy frameworks for access to public information in Latin America. After introducing key concepts such as Public Sector Information (PSI), open data and big data, the chapter presents the results of the OECD Regional Survey on Open Government in Latin America looking at the institutions responsible for disclosing information, exemptions limiting access to information as well as the functions and benefits of centralised, sectoral and ministry information portals in eleven Latin American countries. The chapter emphasises that "freedom of information" laws are widespread in Latin America. However, it also underlines that these laws often lack effective implementation.

  • Harnessing the Potential for Open Data in Latin America

    This chapter highlights some of the main trends in governments’ strategies and initiatives related to open data and public sector information across Latin American countries. It analyses the status of open data policies across Latin American countries by looking at the objectives of existing open data strategies and programs, and available open data portals as well as mechanisms for communication, consultation and co-operation for the development and implementation open data policies. It identifies that Latin American countries are at very different stages of their open data development process. Some have longstanding experience in the area; others are just starting to design strategies and portals. Finally, the chapter points to the importance for all LACs to focus on the potential of open data for economic and social value creation, and to generate informed data release according to user needs.

  • Open government policies and initiatives in Colombia

    This chapter analyses open government policies and initiatives in the Republic of Colombia. It first discusses the extensive legal framework for open government in Colombia highlighting in particular the new Law on Transparency and Access to Information and the new Anti-Corruption Statute. It then introduces the main institutions involved in open government policy making, implementation and evaluation and discusses the government’s main open government policy achievements including the Anti-Corruption Observatory, the Economic Tranparency Portal and the National system to evaluate public management results (SINERGIA) that is advanced by OECD standards. Finally, the chapter presents specific recommendations to help the country sustain the progress achieved and address the remaining challenges. Recommendations include to enhance the focus on the implementation of the legal framework particularly the new Law on Transparency and Access to Information and to improve open government communication by involving the media.

  • Open government policies and initiatives in Costa Rica

    Chapter 6 introduces open government policies and initiatives in Costa Rica. It provides a detailed analysis of the country’s extensive legal framework that establishes the basis for an open, transparent and participatory government and provides concrete recommendations to strengthen this framework including via the drafting of a Law on Access to Information. It highlights the importance of the Inter-Sectoral Commission for Digital Government and of the Digital Government Technical Secretariat for the country’s open government agenda and points to the successful exploitation of the value added of open government data by means of the centralised open data portal and the organisation of hackathon events.

  • Open government policies and initiatives in Peru

    This chapter assesses the capacity of the government of Peru to produce, implement and evaluate high quality open government policies. The chapter illustrates the country’s strong legal framework for transparency and access to information and identifies progress that has been made within the institutional framework, in particular with the establishment of the Permanent Multi-Sectoral Commision in 2013. The chapter then recommends developing a clear open data action plan to link the already highly developed access to information agenda with the open data agenda and expanding efforts to include local governments and institutions such as Parliament in open government policy making.

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