OECD Urban Policy Reviews

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OECD Urban Policy Reviews provide a comprehensive assessment of a country’s urban policies as seen through multiple lenses, including economic, social and environmental. First, the reviews focus on the policies designed and introduced by the central government that directly address urban development and regional development policies with an urban development focus. Second, the reviews analyse how national spatial planning for urban regions, along with specific sectoral policies, impact urban development, directly and indirectly. Often, public policies are designed to target sectoral objectives with little or no regard for their profound impact on urban areas, and the means available to implement policies at the local level. Third, the reviews address issues of governance, including inter-governmental fiscal relationships and the various institutional, fiscal and policy tools aimed at fostering co-ordinated urban development among different levels of government and different administrations at the central level. For example, reducing the fragmentation among urban governance structures can help enhance effectiveness and outcomes in public service delivery and other policy areas. From country to country, the OECD Urban Policy Reviews follow a consistent methodology that features cross-national comparisons and recommendations on the integration of sectoral policies into urban development policy, planning and management.

OECD Urban Policy Reviews, Poland 2011

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02 mai 2011
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9789264097834 (PDF) ;9789264097810(imprimé)

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This comprehensive review of urban policy in Poland looks at the urban system and the challenges it faces, national policies for urban development in Poland, and adapting governance for a national urban policy agenda.
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  • Foreword
    Urban issues have emerged as key features on national policy agendas. The importance of cities and their corresponding metropolitan areas to the national economy makes them key players in the international marketplace. This in turn leads governments to renew their support to cities. At a time of increasing globalisation and international competition for investment, urban regions have become the target of a wide range of public interventions. Throughout OECD member countries these policies encompass plans to solve traditional urban problems – urban sprawl, abandoned districts, and poverty –and newer issues such as competitiveness strategy, city marketing, environmental sustainability, and innovation.
  • Acknowledgements
    This review was prepared by the OECD’s Directorate of Public Governance and Territorial Development (GOV), with the support and co-operation of the Polish Ministry of Regional Development (MRD). The OECD Secretariat would like to thank public officials in the MRD’s Department of Structural Policy Co-ordination: Piotr ¯uber (Director), Renata Calak (Deputy Director), Daniel Baliñski (Head of Regional Dimension Unit), Magdalena Skwarska (Counsellor to the Minister), Anna Baucz (Senior Specialist), Aleksandra Kisielewska (Head of Future of Cohesion Policy Unit).
  • Assessment and Recommendations
    Since acceding to the European Union in 2004, Poland has become its fastest growing economy. Thanks to seven straight years of rapid economic growth, Poland has been catching up with income levels elsewhere in Europe. Since EU accession, the country’s per capita GDP has gone from 44 to 48% of EU average. Between 2006 and 2007, Poland grew at rates exceeding 6% and outshining most BRIICS countries. In 2009, in the midst of the recent economic crisis, Poland was the best economic performer in the OECD. Poland’s economic expansion will continue to be supported by interest rates. However, tight credit conditions remain an obstacle. EU-funded investments have been key in fuelling investment and growth. It is crucial that Poland seizes this opportunity to invest in its longterm growth potential.
  • Urban System and Challenges in Poland
    This chapter examines the trends in urbanisation, shows the reader what the urban system looks like and raises the issues and main challenges of urban areas in Poland. The chapter considers different definitions of urban areas and explores those applied in Poland. It also proposes and applies a methodology to identify urban areas based on their functionality and not based on administrative boundaries. The methodology identifies groups of urban functional areas (ULMAs) in Poland based on a series of indicators as well as on population size. The chapter also shows economic performance trends among ULMAs and discusses determinants of economic growth. Four main challenges are identified for urban areas in Poland: ageing and a shrinking labour force, inequality, transport infrastructure backlogs and the housing deficit. The chapter ends with a discussion on environmental pressures and the impact urbanisation has had.
  • National Policies for Urban Development in Poland
    This chapter presents the need for a national urban policy framework in Poland and addresses the main policy challenges urban areas are facing. The chapter starts by describing the current strategic framework for regional and urban development strategies and key policy documents in national administration. It also investigates the gaps between the framework in place and urban development needs, the potential role and objectives of a national urban policy, as well as sectoral reforms that can address urban areas’ main challenges. In particular, the chapter highlights urban policies that can enhance competitiveness while addressing inequality, increase the availability of affordable housing, and improve land-use planning.
  • Adapting Governance for a National Urban Policy Agenda
    This chapter discusses governance strategies for adopting a national urban policy agenda. The chapter starts by assessing the country’s current governance and planning framework and pointing out particular areas of opportunity. The chapter focuses on ways of enhancing co-ordination across levels of government and strengthening inter-municipal co-ordination within urban functional areas. The chapter also makes recommendations on how to improve inter-ministry coherence and integration at the central level and strengthen the role of intermediate levels of government. The chapter ends by looking at urban fiscal capacity by describing the system’s main features and making recommendations on financing infrastructure, using property taxes for business development and addressing inequality by improving public service provision.
  • Annex A

    The OECD has classified regions within each member country.

  • Annex B
    Cluster analysis is a technique that makes it possible to identify individuals similar to each other given a range of variables. Among the different tools within cluster analysis, K-Means Clustering was chosen, as a relatively small number of clusters were desired and the researcher can use this tool when the number of clusters is known in advance. Five variables were also chosen as the parametres by which city-regions would be similar or different: population size, population growth, road density, employment in manufacturing and employment in services. All variables were standardised before the cluster analysis was performed.
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