Sharing Road Safety

Sharing Road Safety

Developing an International Framework for Crash Modification Functions You do not have access to this content

Forum International des Transports

Anglais
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Auteur(s):
OCDE
Date de publication :
08 nov 2012
Pages :
132
ISBN :
9789282103760 (PDF) ; 9789282103753 (imprimé)
DOI :
10.1787/9789282103760-en

Cacher / Voir l'abstract

Each year about 1.3 million people are killed and another 50 million people are injured on roads worldwide. These road crashes cost countries between 1 and 3 percent of their GDP. Many of these crashes can be prevented by effective countermeasures. This report helps identify the most effective safety countermeasures.

Policy makers need to justify expenditure on road safety in terms of effectiveness, competing for the scarce resources available. The risk of making poor decisions and the cost of making better decisions can be reduced by the use of reliable studies on how effective safety measures are, based on Crash Modification Functions (CMFs). This report shows that there is a prospect for significant advances and major cost savings through the transfer of results internationally, allowing for more rapid adoption and dissemination of new life-saving safety measures.

The report serves as a guide to how research results can be shared internationally. It provides checklist for systematic review of road safety studies and a framework for standardising methodology.

The report targets the road safety research community but will also find an audience among policy makers at all levels of government. The report highlights the value of Crash Modification Functions and the importance of ensuring practicioners use the best CMFs available.

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  • Cliquez pour accéder:  Recommendations
    Road safety policies should undergo performance and efficiency evaluations. Such evaluations cannot be undertaken without Crash Modification Functions (CMFs). Evaluation processes should be documented to ensure they are transparent.
  • Cliquez pour accéder:  Key messages
    The decision making process for safety interventions is complex, involving a number of actors (experts, public, politicians, etc.) and issues (environment, economy, congestion) competing for the scarce resources available. The risk of making poor decisions and the cost of making better decisions can be reduced by the use of reliable studies on how effective different safety measures are (i.e. Crash Modification Functions – CMFs).
  • Cliquez pour accéder:  Executive Summary
    The decision making process for safety interventions is complex, involving a number of actors (experts, public, politicians etc) and issues (environment, economy, congestion) competing for the scarce resources available. The risk of making poor decisions and the cost of making better decisions can be reduced by the use of reliable studies on how effective different safety measures are (ie. Crash Modification Functions – CMFs).
  • Cliquez pour accéder:  Introduction
    Each year about 1.3 million people are killed and another 50 million people are injured on roads worldwide. These road crashes cost countries between 1 and 3 percent of their Gross Domestic Product (WHO, 2010). In addition, they cause great emotional and financial stress to the millions of families that are affected by these crashes. A lot of these crashes can be prevented by implementing effective road safety measures. To be able to select the best measure, a decision maker needs information about the effectiveness of different measures. Moreover, information about the effectiveness of measures is needed in case one (a politician) has to make a choice between expenses on road safety measures and other expenses, like measures to limit environmental effects of traffic or measures to improve traffic throughput.
  • Cliquez pour accéder:  Challenges and opportunities for transferability
    This chapter reviews some of the technical challenges for international collaboration on crash modification functions. The chapter identifies opportunities to overcome obstacles for the transferability of road safety knowledge and encourage positive action to support transferability. It discusses the importance of the proper planning and documentation of research in improving international transferability of CMFs.
  • Cliquez pour accéder:  Assessing transferability of road safety evaluation studies
    This chapter introduces a statistical technique for assessing the transferability (external validity) of road safety evaluation studies from one country to another. The technique can be used to calculate statistics showing the consistency in time and space of studies that have evaluated the effects of road safety measures. The method is illustrated through a number of examples.
  • Cliquez pour accéder:  Quantitative framework for enhancing transferability of crash modification factors or functions
    This chapter provides a quantitative framework for assessing and enhancing the international transferability of crash modification functions. Variability in CMF research results is identified as a major deterrent to international transferability. The chapter provides detailed guidance on how to assess variance. It further describes how researchers can build studies to reduce variance from this perspective and how practitioners can better understand CMFs that they would like to apply.
  • Cliquez pour accéder:  Overcoming barriers to implementation
    This chapter discusses some of the challenges of safety decision making and provides an illustration on how Crash Modification Functions can support decision making to overcome some of these barriers. One of the hindrances to the widespread use and transfer of CMS is the lack of supporting documentation related to the countermeasure, the development process, and conditions under which the countermeasure was tested. The chapter provides a list of essential reporting elements for inclusion in any study presenting safety evaluation results. Finally, this chapter also discusses the underlying conditions required for sharing knowledge of effective safety policies with developing countries.
  • Cliquez pour accéder:  Conclusions
    This report has highlighted the complex nature of decision making for sound investments in road safety. Among other items, crash modification factors or functions (CMFs) that relate safety effectiveness to interventions and are transferable from one situation to another are a valuable tool in spreading effective safety policies. CMFs are fundamental to identifying the most effective road safety countermeasures and for conducting economic analysis of safety policies. Demand for CMFs is growing in many jurisdictions as policy makers increase their requirements to demonstrate results and undertake cost-benefit and efficiency assessments and as managers seek to ensure they are making the best possible decisions for safety in their projects.
  • Cliquez pour accéder:  Review of existing approaches and initiatives
    This appendix provides a review of national and international approaches for the efficiency assessment of road safety measures. In particular, the most important international initiatives for providing standardized and accurate methods or tools for the estimation of safety effects of road safety measures are presented. Furthermore, examples from the use and application of these (or other) methods and tools at national level are analyzed.
  • Cliquez pour accéder:  References
  • Cliquez pour accéder:  Glossary
  • Cliquez pour accéder:  Contributors to the report
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