Foreword and Acknowledgements
Food and the Tourism Experience: The OECD – Korea Workshop provides an analysis of food experiences from a wide range of countries and regions around the world. The aim is to develop new knowledge on the relationship between food experiences and tourism that can support the development of appropriate policies, support mechanisms and marketing and branding activities. It also signals areas for policy orientations (Box 0.1).
An overview of food and tourism trends and policies
The rise of the experience economy has ushered in a growing role for food experiences in tourism. This review of recent developments in the field of food and tourism experiences underlines the ways in which food experiences can be adapted to meet tourist needs, how culinary tourism can play a role in local development, create new tourism products, stimulate innovation and support marketing and branding. The tourist desire to seek out new and novel food experiences is examined, together with the desire for authenticity in food experiences. The chapter concludes with implications for policy and suggestions for further research.
Boosting food and tourism-related regional economic development
Intangible assets are fast becoming the basis for regional economic competiveness through tourism strategies. The question of who benefits should be fundamental in assessing regional economic development policies and strategies. In order to utilise food tourism as an economic development driver, it is important to encourage visitors to stop, spend and stay longer. Retaining visitor expenditure, developing networks with a host of regional stakeholders and the development of intellectual capital are important if food tourism is to be integrated within wider regional development strategies. However, the extent to which food producers become part of the business mix in tourism development initiatives depends on overall business goals, location and target markets.
Linking local food resources to high-quality restaurants in the Nordic Region
The Nordic project EXPLORE (EXPeriencing LOcal food REsources in the Nordic countries), has enhanced innovation in the Nordic food, tourism and experience industries. The chapter examines and compares various local networks and systems of distribution connected to rural high quality restaurants. It also explores the role of narratives and co-operation with stakeholders along the production chain including food producers, restaurants, galleries and shops. Importance is given to local values, local specialities and place related stories. Training opportunities and networking with suppliers to improve consistency and quality, training for restaurant entrepreneurs in business skills and, solutions to off-set high transport and distribution costs are some of the practical considerations highlighted.
Educating tourists in the art of gastronomy and culture in Italy
National culinary traditions are strong but, as food becomes ever more globalised, authenticity of experiences may be threatened. This chapter explores the struggle to promote cultural approaches to food, rooted in respect for traditions, history, culture and nature. Tourists need to be assisted, advised and guided to fully appreciate gastronomy. Language and the use of words to describe culinerary experiences is just as important as that of taste buds and tongue. It translates, codifies and classifies sensations. The author lists a number of strategies to encourage linguistic, geographical, economic, sensorial and historic knowledge of the national culinary offer.
Promoting regional cuisine as intangible cultural heritage in Latin America
Sustainable tourism development can contribute to easing poverty in rural and outlying areas of Latin America. In pursuit of policies to eliminate poverty and involve women in local development, interest in culinary tourism is gaining ground. With rising interest in culinary tourism and the impossibility of freezing culture in time, opportunities and challenges occur. Intangible cultural heritage represents the heritage of a community but it is also extremely fragile due to globalisation trends and resulting cultural homogenisation. Tourists often have less interest in regional dishes being authentic than in them appearing exotic. This is a challenge for those that hope to preserve and even re-introduce culinary traditions.
Developing policy strategies for Korean cuisine to become a tourist attraction
Korean cuisine is being promoted globally under the banner "Korean cuisine, loved by foreigners" and has the goal of becoming one of the top 5 international foods. This chapter examines strategies currently underway to promote Korean cuisine, such as: creating international meccas for Korean cooking; expanding Korean cuisine establishments; supporting research and development; promoting hygiene and safety; simplifying and explaining menus and, developing internationally recognised brands. Food and local culture can paint a unique picture which are referred to in this chapter as "foodscapes". The author makes the case for more research to develop additional strategies to encompass all stakeholders that make up the foodscape.
Gastronomy as a key factor in branding Spain
Spain has become a name in the world of gastronomy. However, in the global all-out war for gastronomic influence, there are still many challenges for Spain including the need to: improve the gastronomic offer; globally create a brand image; increase Spanish restaurants abroad; develop the tapas concept; become a global reference point for culinary education; and provide tools for travellers to design their experiences and to connect with them (emphasising quality, authenticity, value, substance and comfort). Mass-customisation is becoming a new trend and with this new challenges are unfolding for the food tourism sector.
Globalising Korean food and stimulating inbound tourism
Korea’s legal and institutional framework aims to support active participation from private enterprises to promote Hansik globalisation. The author makes the case for supporting regional tradition and provides good practice examples that connect Hansik globalisation and the tourism industry. There is a favourable environment for Korean food because of the growing popularity of healthy food options. However, Korea might not be ready to take full advantage of this opportunity because of poor management techniques and know-how. Compounding the problem are increasing taxes and decreasing business profits due to rising costs of ingredients, labour costs and rental expenses. The economic recession is a fundamental problem.
The culinary experience: A major pillar of Austrian tourism
Austria has long been at the forefront of sustainable tourism. The author explores the philosophy behind the "Holidays in Austria" brand that promotes life-changing experiences for visitors to Austria. The National Tourist Office showcases not only eating establishments, from high-class restaurants to local eateries, but also unusual and varied products, gourmet regions, local specialties, prize-winning wines, etc. Priority is given to being a welcoming country for guests. Other attractive selling points are Austria’s growing number of innovative food producers and Austria’s ecological record which has seen a significant growth in organic farms.
Promoting Japanese food culture and products
Japanese chefs are expected to study related artistic fields including flower arranging and pottery. Japanese food based on umami, meaning a pleasant savoury taste now fascinates famous chefs all over the world. This chapter provides insight into concrete measures being used to promote food exports and Japanese food culture abroad. Japan has adopted a "General Strategy for the export of Japanese agricultural, forestry and fisheries producers and food" in co-operation with public and private sectors. The chapter outlines the main challenges facing Japan Extern
Promoting food and lifestyle: The French experience
Sopexa has over 50 years experience in promoting the French agrifood industry and supporting branding of French food. France has developed important linkages with territory and regional products however, with increasing international competition, strategies for promoting agrifood products need to highlight the quality of products. Sopexa demonstrates a full range of strategic elements that can be adapted to each tourism and culinary product offer. Their experience indicates that industrial producers need better preparation-segmentation-innovation strategies, accompanied by clear and strong messages.
Innovations in Korean culinary tourism
O’ngo Food Communications research, plan and initiate innovations in culinary tourism programmes in Korea. A full understanding of the clients’ cultural needs is seen as a necessary part of cultural diplomacy. Enhancing the visitors’ experience and providing customer satisfaction are vital components of new culinary tours that are starting to supplant traditional tours. The powerful impact of Information and Communications Technology on individual restaurants is explored in light of their low-cost potential to spread knowledge by word of mouth. Food generates a new wave of tourism in Korea.
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