Specialised Anti-Corruption Institutions

Specialised Anti-Corruption Institutions

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14 mars 2013
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9789264187207 (PDF) ;9789264187191(imprimé)

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This report provides a comparative overview of common standards and key features of specialised anti-corruption institutions and comprehensive descriptions of 19 anti-corruption institutions operating in different parts of the world, presented in a comparable framework. This new edition of an 2008 report reflects the evolving understanding of international standards and the practice and the most recent experiences of anti-corruption institutions. The report discusses three "models" of anti-corruption institutions: multi-functional anti-corruption agencies, institutions fighting corruption through law enforcement and prevention institutions.  

Encouraged by international conventions and success of some specialised anti-corruption institutions in earlier times, such as the Hong Kong’s anti-corruption commission, many countries around the world, including those in Eastern Europe, have created new specialised institutions to prevent and combat corruption over the past decade. Establishing such bodies was often seen as the only way to reduce widespread corruption, as existing institutions were considered too weak for the task, or were considered to be part of the corruption-problem. The report highlights that while many of these new anti-corruption agencies have shown good results, they cannot fight corruption alone. Other public institutions, including various specialised integrity and control bodies, and internal units in various public institutions should play a role in preventing and detecting corruption in different sectors of public administration.

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  • Foreword

    Although its effects on democratic institutions and economic and social development have long been apparent, the fight against corruption has only relatively recently been placed high on the international policy agenda. Today, many international organisations are addressing the global and multi-faceted challenge of fighting corruption.

  • Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • Executive summary

    One of the best-known specialised anti-corruption institutions - Hong Kong’s Independent Commission against Corruption - was established in 1974. The Commission has contributed significantly to Hong Kong’s success in reducing corruption.

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  • Ouvrir / Fermer Cacher / Voir les résumés International Standards and Models of Anti-corruption Institutions

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    • Sources of International Standards

      In the mid-1990s the problem of corruption was recognised as a subject of international concern and drew the attention of numerous global and regional intergovernmental organisations. The last decade witnessed a growing constellation of international "hard law" (treaties and conventions) and "soft law" (recommendations, resolutions, guidelines and declarations) instruments elaborated and adopted within the framework of organisations such as the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OECD, the Organization of American States, the African Union, and the European Union. The multitude of international legal instruments on corruption varies in scope, legal status, membership, implementation and monitoring mechanisms. However, all aim to establish common standards for addressing corruption at the domestic level through its criminalisation, enforcement of anti-corruption legislation and preventive measures. In addition, international legal instruments also aim to identify and promote good practices, and to facilitate co-operation between member states.

    • Elements of International Standards

      This section reviews the main features of the specialised anti-corruption bodies according to international standards and practices.1 These elements include mandate and functions; specialisation; independence and autonomy; transparency and accountability; adequate resources, means and specialised and trained staff; inter-agency co-operation; co-operation with civil society and the private sector; and international co-operation and networking.Des investissements considérables ont été consacrés à l’enseignement scolaire dans les pays de l’OCDE, y compris dans les salaires des enseignants. On observe des points communs ainsi que des différences notables, comme par exemple au niveau des conceptions des enseignants (comme l’a démontré l’Enquête internationale sur les enseignants, l’enseignement et l’apprentissage [TALIS]) et de l’utilisation du temps scolaire. De nombreux travaux de l’OCDE ont analysé les caractéristiques des apprenants et de l’apprentissage ainsi que des enseignants, et ont étudié comment améliorer la direction des établissements d’enseignement. Le travail analytique entrepris pour le Sommet international annuel sur la profession enseignante reconnaît le rôle clé des enseignants dans le succès de l’enseignement scolaire et du changement éducatif. Les données du Programme international pour le suivi des acquis des élèves (PISA) ont permis des analyses sur des aspects spécifiques de l’enseignement scolaire, tels que la perception et la connaissance de l’environnement par les élèves. Les travaux portant sur le rôle éducatif des technologies ont montré l’importance de leur usage à domicile pour les résultats scolaires. Les orientations relatives à l’enseignement scolaire soulignent le besoin de professionnaliser et d’innover, ce qui implique des réformes pour que l’apprentissage efficace soit placé au coeur de l’enseignement scolaire, au lieu de se contenter de modifier les structures et les systèmes administratifs. L’OCDE continue à promouvoir et analyser la qualité de la conception et la sécurité des bâtiments scolaires.

    • Models of Anti-corruption Institutions

      The first specialised anti-corruption bodies appeared a long time ago, before the establishment of the Singapore’s and Hong Kong commissions in the 1950s and 1970s. But it is the example of these two agencies that gave rise to the popular image of the successful, independent multi-purpose anti-corruption agency. However, there are many more types of anti-corruption bodies which exist and operate in various countries.

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