Mobile phones are becoming the most rapidly adopted technology in history and the most popular and widespread personal technology in the world. Additionally, they play an increasingly important role in providing access to the Internet. Access to mobile networks is available to 90% of the world population, and to 80% of the population living in rural areas, according to the ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators database; and among OECD countries mobile broadband subscriptions grew at a compounded annual growth rate of 20% between 2007 and 2009, according to the OECD Communications Outlook 2011.
This report was drafted by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), in collaboration with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) under the leadership of Mr. Brahima Sanou, Director, ITU Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT), Mr. Rolf Alter, Director, OECD Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate, and Ms.Haiyan Qian, Director, Division for Public Administration and Development Management of DESA.
In the past decade, the mobile communication technologies revolution and the growth of high-speed broadband and wireless access have begun to make a considerable impact on economic and social development worldwide, reinforced by the expansion of the public sector’s capacity to leverage the use of ICTs to improve its internal functioning, as well as its interactions with citizens and businesses. However, the level of access to fixed broadband, particularly in developing countries, is lower than the access to mobile technology. This is due, in great part, to the high cost of the broadband technology and required infrastructure, in comparison to the costeffectiveness and impact of mobile technology on citizens’ lives and on their interaction with governments.
Towards the next generation of public services
Data show an impressive increase in the use of and access to mobile technology, in both developed and developing countries. Mobile cellular is the most rapidly adopted technology in history and the most popular and widespread personal technology worldwide. Growing research demonstrates the potential of mobile communications to radically transform governments and to provide access to public information and services in areas where infrastructure required for Internet or wired phone service is not an option. M-Government is therefore emerging as the next big wave for information and communication technology (ICT) use in the public sector. For many public agencies, however, m-government is still in the early stages of development, and, in many instances, it is still part of an overall strategy of public sector modernisation and enhanced public service delivery. Understanding the underlying concepts and motivational factors which explain the emergence of m-government is crucial for governments to set priorities and formulate adequate policies.
Benefits and outcomes of M-government
Mobile technology is significantly expanding governments’ capacity to produce benefits and deliver outcomes for governments, citizens, businesses, and to impact positively national overall economic growth. The most notable progress will be in developing countries which have been historically limited by poor or non-existent communications infrastructure that, in turn, have constrained economic development and social improvements. However, m-government development will also provide countries with more developed e-government and the opportunity to tackle a number of issues - such as those related to the digital-divide - which remain a critical factor in the levels of e-government services take-up which are lower-thanexpected in many countries. By enabling the development of a whole new set of G2C, G2G, G2B and G2E applications and services, m-government affords, for instance, a powerful and transformational capacity to extend access to existing services, to expand the delivery of new services, to increase active citizen participation in government operations and to change the way of working within the public sector.
Understanding M-government adoption
M-Government is not just a series of single initiatives; rather, it is becoming a strategic and inherent way of doing government business. Government adoption of mobile technologies is propelled by a number of factors, such as policies, standards, cultural trends, availability and costs. When analysing the potential of m-government within an agency, and the modality for its adoption, it is important for the governments to examine a number of elements. These include the value chain, which is created by the various entities that provide the products and services required in the process of constructing a mobile solution, the key players and stakeholders across the value chain, as well as the stakeholders’ partnerships and collaborations.
Prerequisites for agility and ubiquity
E-Government services are increasingly required to be platform-independent and constantly available. Therefore, concepts such as mobile government and one-stop shops have gained priority. As governments are trying to foster their capacity to be agile and ubiquitous, they are slowly evolving service delivery towards mobile wireless. This reality requires careful analysis, prototyping and evaluation of services to investigate whether any change leading to new forms of information or service delivery, and/or access, will be accepted by citizens; if changes in user acceptance and cultural adaption are needed; and whether the needed critical mass of "digital natives" exists to fully reap the benefits of the new investments. The analysis may identify a number of different challenges which will have to be surmounted, i.e. technical, governance, policy, financial, economic, organisational and institutional, legal and regulatory.
Technology options for mobile solutions
Mobile solutions can be constructed in a variety of ways, with diverse choices in terms of networks, channels (e.g. voice channels, signaling channels, data channels) back-end information systems and enterprise architecture, devices and applications. In order to effectively identify and deploy affordable, successful and sustainable mobile solutions, it is critical to have a clear focus on the targeted policy and service delivery goals, and a sound appraisal of available technology options. Technical issues, problems related to security, identity management, broadband connectivity and the integration and interoperability of systems and applications, are all matters that need to be discussed and addressed. Likewise, the development of locationbased services, the impact of new trends on the mobile market and of social networking on mobile service delivery, i.e. "Mobile Web 2.0", will require adequate attention and will be at the core of policy makers’ discussions in the upcoming years.
M-Vision and a call for action
As citizens across the world increasingly turn to mobile technology as their main source for news, information and connecting with others, m-government is expected to continuously expand. Governments understandably want to reach out to citizens in innovative ways in order to streamline administrative processes, facilitate accessibility and improve the quality of services in a number of areas such as finance, banking, weather emergencies and citizen engagement. The checklist in this chapter provides a preliminary guide to orient governments and help them improve their understanding on how to translate the new trends in the m-government field into a valuable tool to improve their performance, both internally and vis-a-vis the interaction with citizens and businesses.
Annex A. M-Government projects compendium
Ajouter à ma sélection