Fighting Corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

ISSN :
2074-3572 (en ligne)
ISSN :
2074-3580 (imprimé)
DOI :
10.1787/20743572
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This series of reports examines how corruption can be fought in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
 
Anti-corruption Reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Anti-corruption Reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Progress and Challenges, 2009-2013 You do not have access to this content

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Auteur(s):
OCDE
Date de publication :
16 août 2013
Pages :
200
ISBN :
9789264201903 (PDF) ; 9789264201873 (imprimé)
DOI :
10.1787/9789264201903-en

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During several past years countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia have introduced important anti-corruption reforms. However, corruption remains high in the region. This report identifies progress achieved in the region as well as remaining challenges which require further action by countries. The report analyses three broad areas of anti-corruption work, including anti-corruption policies and institutions, criminalisation of corruption and law-enforcement, and measures to prevent corruption in public administration and in the business sector. The analysis is illustrated by examples of good practice from various countries and comparative cross-country data.


The report focuses on eight countries in the region which participate in the OECD/ACN initiative knows as the Istanbul Anti-Corruption Action Plan which including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. It also presents examples from other countries in the region to give a broader perspective for the analysis. The report covers the period between 2008 and 2012, when the second round of monitoring of Istanbul Action Plan countries was implemented, and is based on the results of this monitoring.

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    Foreword

    During several past years countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia have introduced important anti-corruption reforms. However, corruption remains high in the region. This report identifies progress achieved in the region as well as remaining challenges which require further action by countries.

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    Acronyms
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    Executive summary
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    Anti-corruption trends in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Chapter 1 describes the spread of corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and discusses the dynamics in the levels of corruption during the past five years. This description is based on available surveys and reports, including those conducted by various international organisations: Corruption Perception Index and Global Corruption Barometer by Transparency International, Nations in Transit by Freedom House, "Life in Transition" by the EBRD, "Global Competitiveness Report" by the World Economic Forum, and "Enterprise Surveys" by the World Bank and others. This Chapter also describes participation of the countries in the region in international anti-corruption efforts, including their adherence to the UN Convention against Corruption and Council of Europe Criminal Law Convention on Corruption. The Chapter concludes that among all Eastern European and Central Asian countries, new EU members and the Balkans States, as well as Georgia have made the most progress in fighting corruption, but important challenges remain for all countries.

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    Anti-corruption policy and institutions in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Chapter 2 analyses progress achieved by Eastern Europe and Central Asia in developing and implementing anti-corruption policies. It stresses that declarations of the political leaders about their commitment to fight corruption still has to be supported by practical actions in many countries. Almost all countries by now have adopted anti-corruption strategies and action plans, but their implementation is often weak and their impact on the levels of corruption is not known. Surveys about corruption should be used for the development and monitoring of strategies. There are many public participation initiatives in the region, but real partnership between governments and NGOs in the development, implementation of the anti-corruption strategies is still to be achieved. Many countries have established councils or other bodies to co-ordinate the strategies, but further efforts are needed to ensure that these institutions are effective and can support the implementation of anti-corruption policies in practice.

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    Criminalising corruption and enforcement of legislation in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Chapter 3 analyses criminalisation of corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, including bribery and other corruption offences, corporate liability, definition of public official, sanctions and confiscation, statute of limitation and immunities, international co-operation and mutual legal assistance. It notes that almost all countries have achieved some progress in bringing their national legislation in compliance with international anti-corruption standards, e.g. significant reforms were directed at introducing corporate liability for corruption. However, a conservative legal doctrine remains an obstacle for full compliance with the international standards. As a result, legal gaps remain with regard to bribery and trading in influence, confiscation and immunity provisions. The Chapter also examines the capacity of law-enforcement bodies to fight corruption. Many countries have demonstrated progress in meeting international standards concerning anti-corruption law-enforcement bodies, but adequate specialisation, institutional and procedural autonomy, and resources remain an issue. Concerning the practice of investigation and prosecution of corruption cases, countries need to build up the capacity to use modern investigative methods and to conduct financial investigations.

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    Prevention of corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Chapter 4 examines a broad range of measures taken by countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia to prevent corruption in public administration and in the private sector. The Chapter examines progress in strengthening integrity in public service, preventing political influence on professional civil service and sanctioning conflict of interest, reporting obligations and whistle-blower protection. The Chapter analyses progress achieved by the countries in preventing corruption in public procurement, including through the introduction of review systems, e-procurement and debarment. The Chapter further examines how legislation on access to information can be further improved to promote transparency of public administration. It examines mechanisms to prevent political corruption, including rules for financing of political parties and elections. The Chapter analyses integrity in judiciary, including independence, integrity and accountability of judges. It concludes by exploring measures that governments and the private sector in the region took to prevent corruption in the business sector and proposes recommendations for further strengthening these measures.

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    The Anti-corruption Network for Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Chapter 5 describes the role that the OECD Anti-Corruption Network for Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ACN) played in supporting anti-corruption reforms in the region. It describes the governance structure and funding mechanism of the ACN. It describes the main ACN activities over the past five years, including the second round of monitoring under the Istanbul Action Plan, thematic studies and training seminars for practitioners. The Chapter stresses that peer review and peer learning methodologies proved to be an effective tool for mobilising anti-corruption reforms in the region. It further identifies key features that ensured the success of the ACN work, including strong ownership by the governments, participation of non-governmental partners, effective co-operation with other international organisations and stable support of the OECD Secretariat. The Chapter concludes with the discusses how to increase the impact of future ACN anticorruption activities to support practical implementation of anti-corruption reforms in the region.

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    Annex A. Statement on "Reinforcing political will to fight corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia"

    We, Ministers, Heads of Anti-Corruption Agencies and other High Level Officials from countries participating in the Anti-Corruption Network for Eastern Europe and Central Asia, as well as other participants of the High-Level Meeting "Reinforcing Political Will to Fight Corruption in Eastern Europe and Central Asia" hosted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on 10 December 2012 in Paris...

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