OECD/IEA Climate Change Expert Group Papers

Unpacking provisions related to transparency of mitigation and support in the Paris Agreement
2227-779X (en ligne)
DOI : 
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This series is designed to make available to a wider readership selected papers on climate change issues that have been prepared for the OECD/IEA Climate Change Expert Group (CCXG). The CCXG (formerly called the Annex I Expert Group) is a group of government delegates from OECD and other industrialised countries. The aim of the group is to promote dialogue and enhance understanding on technical issues in the international climate change negotiations. CCXG papers are developed in consultation with experts from a wide range of developed and developing countries, including those participating in CCXG Global Forums.

The full papers are generally available only in English.

The opinions expressed in these papers are the sole responsibility of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the OECD, the IEA or their member countries, or the endorsement of any approach described therein.

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Sélectionner Numéro Date TitreCliquez pour accéder
  N° 2016/02   07 juin 2016 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/unpacking-provisions-related-to-transparency-of-mitigation-and-support-in-the-paris-agreement_5jlww004n6nq-en
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Unpacking provisions related to transparency of mitigation and support in the Paris Agreement
Gregory Briner, Sara Moarif
The agreement of an enhanced transparency framework was a key outcome of the COP 21 climate change conference in Paris. This enhanced transparency framework will play an important role in tracking progress towards the individual and collective goals agreed at COP 21 and in understanding...
  N° 2016/01   07 juin 2016 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/communicating-progress-in-national-and-global-adaptation-to-climate-change_5jlww009v1hj-en
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Communicating progress in national and global adaptation to climate change
Takayoshi Kato, Jane Ellis
The Paris Agreement, adopted by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), reinforces the international framework for adaptation action by establishing a global adaptation goal. Under the Paris Agreement, countries have also agreed to an enhanced...
  N° 2015/07   01 nov 2015 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/identifying-and-addressing-gaps-in-the-unfccc-reporting-framework_5jm56w6f918n-en
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Identifying and addressing gaps in the UNFCCC reporting framework
Jane Ellis, Sara Moarif
There are many reasons why the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reporting framework requests information from countries. These include understanding and tracking progress with individual or collective commitments or pledges, providing confidence and enhancing...
  N° 2015/06   01 nov 2015 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/establishing-cycles-for-nationally-determined-mitigation-contributions-or-commitments_5jm56w6q7n8t-en
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Establishing Cycles for Nationally Determined Mitigation Contributions or Commitments
Sara Moarif
Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are currently negotiating a climate change agreement scheduled for adoption at the 21st Conference of the Parties in December 2015. At the centre of the new agreement are nationally determined contributions (NDCs). These are the...
  N° 2015/05   01 oct 2015 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/encouraging-increased-climate-action-by-non-party-stakeholders_5jm56w74s5wg-en
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Encouraging Increased Climate Action by Non-Party Stakeholders
Yoko Nobuoka, Jane Ellis, Sarah Pyndt Andersen
Limiting the increase in global average temperature to below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels will require ambitious mitigation action by a broad range of actors including Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), i.e., national governments, and...
  N° 2015/04   01 sep 2015 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/overview-of-indcs-submitted-by-31-august-2015_5jrqm0bw3mvl-en
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Overview of INDCs Submitted by 31 August 2015
Christina Hood, Liwayway Adkins, Ellina Levina
In 2015, Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) communicated their Intended Nationally-Determined Contributions (INDCs) for the Paris climate agreement. This publication summarises the key information communicated in the mitigation components of INDCs that...
  N° 2015/03   01 mai 2015 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/assessing-options-to-increase-climate-support_5jrw65rp0pg8-en
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Assessing Options to Increase Climate Support
Jane Ellis, Sara Moarif, Yoko Nobuoka, Marta Pellegrino, Jennifer Helgeson
Climate support will be an important element in reaching a post-2020 climate agreement at COP 21 in December 2015. To further increase and mobilise the levels of climate support post-2020, a number of proposals have been made in the negotiating text produced in the Geneva session of the Ad-hoc...
  N° 2015/02   01 mai 2015 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/strategic-review-implications-of-proposals-to-date-for-mitigation-contributions_5jrxg3st7x6d-en
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Strategic Review: Implications of Proposals to Date for Mitigation Contributions
Sara Moarif
Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) produced a negotiating text in February 2015, which forms the basis for negotiations toward a climate change agreement scheduled for adoption at the 21st Conference of the Parties in December 2015. This document aims to better...
  N° 2015/01   01 mai 2015 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/the-role-of-the-2015-agreement-in-enhancing-adaptation-to-climate-change_5jrxg3xb0h20-en
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The role of the 2015 agreement in enhancing adaptation to climate change
Jennifer Helgeson, Jane Ellis
Adaptation responses are needed to address the existing levels of climate variability and to prepare for future climate impacts. There is wide agreement that adaptation is an important issue and would benefit from being enhanced through more effective action and better planning. The prominence...
  N° 2014/07   01 nov 2014 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/the-role-of-the-2015-agreement-in-mobilising-climate-finance_5js03h9ztlbr-en
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The Role of the 2015 Agreement in Mobilising Climate Finance
Takayoshi Kato, Jane Ellis, Christa Clapp
Shifting public and private investment from "brown" to "green" is an essential part of climate change. The post-2020 climate agreement to be agreed at COP 21 in December 2015 has the potential to play a significant role in signalling the importance of such a shift. This paper explores how the...
  N° 2014/06   01 nov 2014 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/planting-the-foundations-of-a-post-2020-land-sector-reporting-and-accounting-framework_5js1qf2p7pzw-en
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Planting the Foundations of a Post-2020 Land Sector Reporting and Accounting Framework
Gregory Briner, Susanne Konrad
Land management faces a series of daunting challenges in the 21st century. These include contributing to the global mitigation effort and adaptation needed to prevent dangerous climate change, while providing enough food for a population of 9 billion by 2050 as well as shelter and livelihoods...
  N° 2014/05   01 nov 2014 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/energy-sector-transformation_5js1qf33f5xq-en
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Energy Sector Transformation
Christina Hood, Gregory Briner
A key element in the success of limiting mean global surface temperature rise to below 2°C will be transformation of the energy sector globally. In addition to implementing already-available options for more efficient use of energy and low-emissions energy supply, action is needed now to put in...
  N° 2014/04   01 mai 2014 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/taking-stock-of-the-unfccc-process-and-its-inter-linkages_5js1qf553zf8-en
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Taking Stock of the UNFCCC Process and its Inter-linkages
Gregory Briner, Takayoshi Kato, Susanne Konrad, Christina Hood
Governments are currently negotiating the elements of a new climate change agreement to be adopted at the forthcoming COP 21 conference in Paris in 2015. The aim of this paper is to take stock of existing UNFCCC institutions and arrangements and the inter-linkages between them in the areas of...
  N° 2014/03   01 mai 2014 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/built-to-last_5js1qf5cjnvd-en
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Built to Last
Gregory Briner, Takayoshi Kato, Takashi Hattori
The aim of this paper is to explore what a flexible and durable 2015 climate change agreement could look like and propose pragmatic options for the design of such an agreement. A durable 2015 climate change agreement would continue to be ambitious, fair and effective in 2020 and beyond. An...
  N° 2014/02   01 mai 2014 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/ghg-or-not-ghg_5js1qf652kd3-en
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GHG or not GHG
Christina Hood, Gregory Briner, Marcelo Rocha
It is likely that a diverse range of nationally-determined mitigation contributions will be communicated by Parties under the 2015 climate change agreement. An effective post-2020 accounting framework to understand and track implementation of these mitigation contributions will therefore need...
  N° 2014/01   01 mai 2014 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/scaling-up-and-replicating-effective-climate-finance-interventions_5js1qffvmnhk-en
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Scaling up and replicating effective climate finance interventions
Takayoshi Kato, Jane Ellis, Pieter Pauw, Randy Caruso
There is widespread recognition that climate finance needs to be scaled up from its current levels. However, there is no clear view on how developed countries can efficiently and effectively mobilise further climate finance to meet the needs of developing countries. Developed countries have...
  N° 2013/04   01 oct 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment-and-sustainable-development/exploring-climate-finance-effectiveness_5jzb44nmnbd2-en
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Exploring Climate Finance Effectiveness
Jane Ellis, Randy Caruso, Stephanie Ockenden
Ensuring that climate finance is used effectively will help to maximise its impact. The effectiveness of climate finance can be defined as the extent to which an activity attains its stated aims. These aims can vary, depending on the source of climate finance and how it is channelled. There are...
  N° 2013/03   01 oct 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment-and-sustainable-development/establishing-and-understanding-post-2020-climate-change-mitigation-commitments_5jzb44qw9df7-en
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Establishing and Understanding Post-2020 Climate Change Mitigation Commitments
Gregory Briner, Andrew Prag
A new international climate change agreement that will have legal force and be applicable to all countries is being negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The agreement is to be adopted by 2015 and come into effect from 2020. An...
  N° 2013/02   01 mai 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/comparing-definitions-and-methods-to-estimate-mobilised-climate-finance_5k44wj0s6fq2-en
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Comparing Definitions and Methods to Estimate Mobilised Climate Finance
Randy Caruso, Jane Ellis
At the 16th Conference of the Parties (COP) in 2010, developed countries formalised a collective climate finance commitment made previously in Copenhagen of "mobilising jointly USD 100 billion per year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries...from a wide variety of sources, public...
  N° 2013/01   20 déc 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment-and-sustainable-development/made-to-measure-options-for-emissions-accounting-under-the-unfccc_5jzbb2tp8ptg-en
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Made to Measure: Options for Emissions Accounting under the UNFCCC
Andrew Prag, Christina Hood, Pedro Martins Barata
Mitigation pledges put forward by countries under the UNFCCC process are "made to measure" in that they are tailored to fit each country's individual circumstances. However, the pledges also need to be made to be measured so that we have a full understanding of how the various commitments add...
  N° 2012/04   01 nov 2012 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment-and-sustainable-development/projecting-emissions-baselines-for-national-climate-policy_5k3tpsz58wvc-en
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Projecting Emissions Baselines for National Climate Policy
Christa Clapp, Andrew Prag
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions baselines are reference emissions levels. This paper focuses on projected forward-looking baselines that can be used both to inform national climate policy and to set goals that are defined relative to a business-as-usual (BaU) scenario. As some developing...
  N° 2012/03   01 nov 2012 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/making-markets-unpacking-design-and-governance-of-carbon-market-mechanisms_5k43nhks65xs-en
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Making Markets: Unpacking Design and Governance of Carbon Market Mechanisms
Andrew Prag, Gregory Briner, Christina Hood
Carbon market mechanisms such as emissions trading systems and crediting mechanisms can have multiple objectives. A key goal is to lower the cost of achieving greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. Market mechanisms can also catalyse investment in low carbon technologies and practices,...
  N° 2012/02   01 mai 2012 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/crossing-the-threshold-ambitious-baselines-for-the-unfccc-new-market-based-mechanism_5k44xg398s8v-en
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Crossing the Threshold: Ambitious Baselines for the UNFCCC New Market-Based Mechanism
Andrew Prag, Gregory Briner
At COP 17 in Durban, countries defined a new market-based mechanism to promote cost-effective mitigation actions, guided by a set of principles previously agreed at COP 16. These principles include "stimulating mitigation across broad segments of the economy", "ensuring a net decrease and/or...
  N° 2012/01   01 mai 2012 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/tracking-climate-finance_5k44xwtk9tvk-en
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Tracking Climate Finance
Christa Clapp, Jane Ellis, Julia Benn, Jan Corfee-Morlot
Developed countries have committed under the international negotiations to jointly mobilising USD 100 billion per year by 2020 for climate change mitigation and adaptation in developing countries. Yet consistent and comprehensive data to track this commitment are currently lacking. Such data...
  N° 2011/05   01 nov 2011 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/tracking-and-trading-expanding-on-options-for-international-greenhouse-gas-unit-accouting-after-2012_5k44xwtzm1zw-en
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Tracking and Trading: Expanding on Options for International Greenhouse Gas Unit Accounting after 2012
Andrew Prag, Christina Hood, André Aasrud, Gregory Briner
The use of tradable greenhouse gas (GHG) units to meet emissions reduction goals is likely to continue after 2012 as many countries have expressed support for using market mechanisms to promote and enhance the cost-effectiveness of mitigation. Most such mechanisms would use tradable GHG units...
  N° 2011/04   01 nov 2011 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/design-options-for-international-assessment-and-review-iar-and-international-consultations-and-analysis-ica_5k44zc5rx644-en
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Design Options for International Assessment and Review (IAR) and International Consultations and Analysis (ICA)
Jane Ellis, Gregory Briner, Yamide Dagnet, Nina Campbell
In 2010, the international community took steps to improve the system of reporting and verification under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Parties to the UNFCCC decided at the sixteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 16) to enhance reporting for...
  N° 2011/03   01 mai 2011 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/monitoring-and-tracking-long-term-finance-to-support-climate-action_5k44zcqbbj42-en
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Monitoring and Tracking Long-Term Finance to Support Climate Action
Barbara Buchner, Jessica Brown, Jan Corfee-Morlot
The Cancún Agreements formalise a collective commitment by developed countries to provide new and additional funding for action on climate change in developing countries both in the short- and longer-term. This collective financial commitment requires a system to measure, report and verify...
  N° 2011/02   01 mai 2011 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/frequent-and-flexible-options-for-reporting-guidelines-for-biennial-update-reports_5k45165j1kmq-en
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Frequent and Flexible: Options for Reporting Guidelines for Biennial Update Reports
Jane Ellis, Gregory Briner, Sara Moarif, Barbara Buchner
The Cancun Agreements outlined the list of topics to be included in biennial reports and indicated that guidelines for them were to be developed, but provided limited guidance on their structure and content. This paper proposes a structure for biennial reports for both developed and developing...
  N° 2011/01   01 mai 2011 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/keeping-track-options-to-develop-international-greenhouse-gas-unit-accounting-after-2012_5k450qb83vq8-en
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Keeping Track: Options to Develop International Greenhouse Gas Unit Accounting after 2012
Andrew Prag, André Aasrud, Christina Hood
This paper examines environmental and institutional implications of the use of tradable GHG units under different international accounting scenarios in the post-2012 international climate change policy framework. A range of possible scenarios is presented based on analysis on various building...
  N° 2010/04   01 nov 2010 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/options-to-revise-reporting-guidelines-for-annex-i-and-non-annex-i-national-communications_5k451mzld7jl-en
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Options to Revise Reporting Guidelines for Annex I and non-Annex I National Communications
Jane Ellis, Sara Moarif, Gregory Briner, Barbara Buchner, Eric Massey
This paper outlines options for new reporting guidelines for national communications from Annex I and non-Annex I countries, both for "full" national communications and biennial "updates". These reports can facilitate the sharing of information between Parties and may be used to assess the...
  N° 2010/03   01 nov 2010 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/market-readiness_5k45165zm8f8-en
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Market Readiness
André Aasrud, Richard Baron, Katia Karousakis
Market-based mechanisms offer a number of advantages to other regulatory approaches for GHG mitigation such as technology or performance standards and feed-in tariffs. Advantages include their ability to attain an emissions goal at lower cost and to create incentives for innovation among...
  N° 2010/02   01 nov 2010 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/low-emission-development-strategies-leds_5k451mzrnt37-en
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Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS)
Christa Clapp, Gregory Briner, Katia Karousakis
The term low-emission development strategies (LEDS) first emerged under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2008 and its possible role in a future climate framework continues to be debated. Though no formally agreed definition exists, LEDS are generally used to...
  N° 2010/01   01 juin 2010 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/core-elements-of-national-reports_5k452k1wn5xx-en
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Core Elements of National Reports
Jane Ellis, Sara Moarif, Gregory Briner
The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol established reporting requirements for Parties. This has resulted in comprehensive and timely information on national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Annex I Parties, periodic reporting of other information from...
  N° 2009/07   01 nov 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/national-and-sectoral-ghg-mitigation-potential_5k453xgpqp9w-en
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National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential
Christa Clapp, Katia Karousakis, Barbara Buchner, Jean Château
Determining comparability of effort between mitigation actions and targets proposed by different countries is an ongoing issue for international climate negotiations. A number of indicators have been proposed to reflect comparability of effort and differences in national circumstances; key...
  N° 2009/06   01 oct 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/financing-climate-change-mitigation_5k453xh6h4r6-en
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Financing Climate Change Mitigation
Jan Corfee-Morlot, Bruno Guay, Kate Larsen
The current monitoring, reporting and review framework under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has a number of strengths and weaknesses. Weaknesses include inconsistent and/or incomplete self reporting of financial support; infrequent reporting; limited and incomplete...
  N° 2009/05   01 oct 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/sectoral-market-mechanisms_5k454d2srld2-en
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Sectoral Market Mechanisms
André Aasrud, Richard Baron, Barbara Buchner, Kevin McCall
This paper reviews proposals for the design of sectoral and related market mechanisms that are being debated both in the UNFCCC negotiations and in different domestic legislative contexts. Decisions on the design and scope of the mechanisms in the UNFCCC negotiations would affect the future...
  N° 2009/04   01 oct 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/reporting-and-recording-post-2012-ghg-mitigation-commitments-actions-and-support_5k454d4z64br-en
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Reporting and Recording Post-2012 GHG Mitigation Commitments, Actions and Support
Jane Ellis, Sara Moarif, Joy Aeree Kim
The Bali Action Plan (BAP) indicated the importance of "measurable, reportable and verifiable" (MRV) greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation actions and commitments, as well as support for GHG mitigation actions, in the post-2012 climate framework. Negotiations underway for this framework have...
  N° 2009/03   01 juin 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/sectoral-approaches-and-the-carbon-market_5k4559g5snzq-en
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Sectoral Approaches and the Carbon Market
Richard Baron, Barbara Buchner, Jane Ellis
Sectoral approaches are proposed as a means to broaden the global scope of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation to developing countries. Market mechanisms are put forward in that context to create incentives for mitigation in developing countries beyond the existing Clean Development Mechanism...
  N° 2009/02   01 mai 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/linking-mitigation-actions-in-developing-countries-with-mitigation-support_5k455r1485q4-en
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Linking Mitigation Actions in Developing Countries with Mitigation Support
Joy Aeree Kim, Jan Corfee-Morlot, Philippine de T’Serclaes
The Bali Action Plan introduced the notion of linking GHG mitigation action in developing countries with support for such action, in a "measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV)" manner. However, it does not specify the relationship or link that may be made between nationally appropriate...
  N° 2009/01   01 mars 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/ghg-mitigation-actions_5k4695890xd6-en
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GHG Mitigation Actions
Jane Ellis, Sara Moarif
The Bali Action Plan (BAP) language on "measurable, reportable and verifiable" (MRV) greenhouse gas mitigation actions and commitments for a post-2012 climate framework was introduced to apply both to developed countries’ greenhouse gas (GHG) commitments and actions (paragraph 1(b)(i) of the...
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