OECD/IEA Climate Change Expert Group Papers

Exploring Climate Finance Effectiveness
2227-779X (en ligne)
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This series is designed to make available to a wider readership selected papers on climate change issues that have been prepared for the OECD/IEA Climate Change Expert Group (CCXG). The CCXG (formerly called the Annex I Expert Group) is a group of government delegates from OECD and other industrialised countries. The aim of the group is to promote dialogue and enhance understanding on technical issues in the international climate change negotiations. CCXG papers are developed in consultation with experts from a wide range of developed and developing countries, including those participating in CCXG Global Forums.

The full papers are generally available only in English.

The opinions expressed in these papers are the sole responsibility of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the OECD, the IEA or their member countries, or the endorsement of any approach described therein.

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  N° 2013/04   01 oct 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment-and-sustainable-development/exploring-climate-finance-effectiveness_5jzb44nmnbd2-en
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Exploring Climate Finance Effectiveness
Jane Ellis, Randy Caruso, Stephanie Ockenden
Ensuring that climate finance is used effectively will help to maximise its impact. The effectiveness of climate finance can be defined as the extent to which an activity attains its stated aims. These aims can vary, depending on the source of climate finance and how it is channelled. There are...
  N° 2013/03   01 oct 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment-and-sustainable-development/establishing-and-understanding-post-2020-climate-change-mitigation-commitments_5jzb44qw9df7-en
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Establishing and Understanding Post-2020 Climate Change Mitigation Commitments
Gregory Briner, Andrew Prag
A new international climate change agreement that will have legal force and be applicable to all countries is being negotiated under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The agreement is to be adopted by 2015 and come into effect from 2020. An...
  N° 2013/02   01 mai 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/comparing-definitions-and-methods-to-estimate-mobilised-climate-finance_5k44wj0s6fq2-en
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Comparing Definitions and Methods to Estimate Mobilised Climate Finance
Randy Caruso, Jane Ellis
At the 16th Conference of the Parties (COP) in 2010, developed countries formalised a collective climate finance commitment made previously in Copenhagen of "mobilising jointly USD 100 billion per year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries...from a wide variety of sources, public...
  N° 2013/01   20 déc 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment-and-sustainable-development/made-to-measure-options-for-emissions-accounting-under-the-unfccc_5jzbb2tp8ptg-en
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Made to Measure: Options for Emissions Accounting under the UNFCCC
Andrew Prag, Christina Hood, Pedro Martins Barata
Mitigation pledges put forward by countries under the UNFCCC process are "made to measure" in that they are tailored to fit each country's individual circumstances. However, the pledges also need to be made to be measured so that we have a full understanding of how the various commitments add...
  N° 2012/04   01 nov 2012 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment-and-sustainable-development/projecting-emissions-baselines-for-national-climate-policy_5k3tpsz58wvc-en
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Projecting Emissions Baselines for National Climate Policy
Christa Clapp, Andrew Prag
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions baselines are reference emissions levels. This paper focuses on projected forward-looking baselines that can be used both to inform national climate policy and to set goals that are defined relative to a business-as-usual (BaU) scenario. As some developing...
  N° 2012/03   01 nov 2012 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/making-markets-unpacking-design-and-governance-of-carbon-market-mechanisms_5k43nhks65xs-en
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Making Markets: Unpacking Design and Governance of Carbon Market Mechanisms
Andrew Prag, Gregory Briner, Christina Hood
Carbon market mechanisms such as emissions trading systems and crediting mechanisms can have multiple objectives. A key goal is to lower the cost of achieving greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. Market mechanisms can also catalyse investment in low carbon technologies and practices,...
  N° 2012/02   01 mai 2012 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/crossing-the-threshold-ambitious-baselines-for-the-unfccc-new-market-based-mechanism_5k44xg398s8v-en
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Crossing the Threshold: Ambitious Baselines for the UNFCCC New Market-Based Mechanism
Andrew Prag, Gregory Briner
At COP 17 in Durban, countries defined a new market-based mechanism to promote cost-effective mitigation actions, guided by a set of principles previously agreed at COP 16. These principles include "stimulating mitigation across broad segments of the economy", "ensuring a net decrease and/or...
  N° 2012/01   01 mai 2012 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/tracking-climate-finance_5k44xwtk9tvk-en
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Tracking Climate Finance
Christa Clapp, Jane Ellis, Julia Benn, Jan Corfee-Morlot
Developed countries have committed under the international negotiations to jointly mobilising USD 100 billion per year by 2020 for climate change mitigation and adaptation in developing countries. Yet consistent and comprehensive data to track this commitment are currently lacking. Such data...
  N° 2011/05   01 nov 2011 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/tracking-and-trading-expanding-on-options-for-international-greenhouse-gas-unit-accouting-after-2012_5k44xwtzm1zw-en
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Tracking and Trading: Expanding on Options for International Greenhouse Gas Unit Accouting after 2012
Andrew Prag, Christina Hood, André Aasrud, Gregory Briner
The use of tradable greenhouse gas (GHG) units to meet emissions reduction goals is likely to continue after 2012 as many countries have expressed support for using market mechanisms to promote and enhance the cost-effectiveness of mitigation. Most such mechanisms would use tradable GHG units...
  N° 2011/04   01 nov 2011 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/design-options-for-international-assessment-and-review-iar-and-international-consultations-and-analysis-ica_5k44zc5rx644-en
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Design Options for International Assessment and Review (IAR) and International Consultations and Analysis (ICA)
Jane Ellis, Gregory Briner, Yamide Dagnet, Nina Campbell
In 2010, the international community took steps to improve the system of reporting and verification under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Parties to the UNFCCC decided at the sixteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 16) to enhance reporting for...
  N° 2011/03   01 mai 2011 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/monitoring-and-tracking-long-term-finance-to-support-climate-action_5k44zcqbbj42-en
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Monitoring and Tracking Long-Term Finance to Support Climate Action
Barbara Buchner, Jessica Brown, Jan Corfee-Morlot
The Cancún Agreements formalise a collective commitment by developed countries to provide new and additional funding for action on climate change in developing countries both in the short- and longer-term. This collective financial commitment requires a system to measure, report and verify...
  N° 2011/02   01 mai 2011 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/frequent-and-flexible-options-for-reporting-guidelines-for-biennial-update-reports_5k45165j1kmq-en
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Frequent and Flexible: Options for Reporting Guidelines for Biennial Update Reports
Jane Ellis, Gregory Briner, Sara Moarif, Barbara Buchner
The Cancun Agreements outlined the list of topics to be included in biennial reports and indicated that guidelines for them were to be developed, but provided limited guidance on their structure and content. This paper proposes a structure for biennial reports for both developed and developing...
  N° 2011/01   01 mai 2011 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/keeping-track-options-to-develop-international-greenhouse-gas-unit-accounting-after-2012_5k450qb83vq8-en
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Keeping Track: Options to Develop International Greenhouse Gas Unit Accounting after 2012
Andrew Prag, André Aasrud, Christina Hood
This paper examines environmental and institutional implications of the use of tradable GHG units under different international accounting scenarios in the post-2012 international climate change policy framework. A range of possible scenarios is presented based on analysis on various building...
  N° 2010/04   01 nov 2010 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/options-to-revise-reporting-guidelines-for-annex-i-and-non-annex-i-national-communications_5k451mzld7jl-en
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Options to Revise Reporting Guidelines for Annex I and non-Annex I National Communications
Jane Ellis, Sara Moarif, Gregory Briner, Barbara Buchner, Eric Massey
This paper outlines options for new reporting guidelines for national communications from Annex I and non-Annex I countries, both for "full" national communications and biennial "updates". These reports can facilitate the sharing of information between Parties and may be used to assess the...
  N° 2010/03   01 nov 2010 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/market-readiness_5k45165zm8f8-en
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Market Readiness
André Aasrud, Richard Baron, Katia Karousakis
Market-based mechanisms offer a number of advantages to other regulatory approaches for GHG mitigation such as technology or performance standards and feed-in tariffs. Advantages include their ability to attain an emissions goal at lower cost and to create incentives for innovation among...
  N° 2010/02   01 nov 2010 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/low-emission-development-strategies-leds_5k451mzrnt37-en
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Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS)
Christa Clapp, Gregory Briner, Katia Karousakis
The term low-emission development strategies (LEDS) first emerged under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2008 and its possible role in a future climate framework continues to be debated. Though no formally agreed definition exists, LEDS are generally used to...
  N° 2010/01   01 juin 2010 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/core-elements-of-national-reports_5k452k1wn5xx-en
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Core Elements of National Reports
Jane Ellis, Sara Moarif, Gregory Briner
The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol established reporting requirements for Parties. This has resulted in comprehensive and timely information on national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Annex I Parties, periodic reporting of other information from...
  N° 2009/07   01 nov 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/national-and-sectoral-ghg-mitigation-potential_5k453xgpqp9w-en
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National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential
Christa Clapp, Katia Karousakis, Barbara Buchner, Jean Château
Determining comparability of effort between mitigation actions and targets proposed by different countries is an ongoing issue for international climate negotiations. A number of indicators have been proposed to reflect comparability of effort and differences in national circumstances; key...
  N° 2009/06   01 oct 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/financing-climate-change-mitigation_5k453xh6h4r6-en
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Financing Climate Change Mitigation
Jan Corfee-Morlot, Bruno Guay, Kate Larsen
The current monitoring, reporting and review framework under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has a number of strengths and weaknesses. Weaknesses include inconsistent and/or incomplete self reporting of financial support; infrequent reporting; limited and incomplete...
  N° 2009/05   01 oct 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/sectoral-market-mechanisms_5k454d2srld2-en
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Sectoral Market Mechanisms
André Aasrud, Richard Baron, Barbara Buchner, Kevin McCall
This paper reviews proposals for the design of sectoral and related market mechanisms that are being debated both in the UNFCCC negotiations and in different domestic legislative contexts. Decisions on the design and scope of the mechanisms in the UNFCCC negotiations would affect the future...
  N° 2009/04   01 oct 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/reporting-and-recording-post-2012-ghg-mitigation-commitments-actions-and-support_5k454d4z64br-en
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Reporting and Recording Post-2012 GHG Mitigation Commitments, Actions and Support
Jane Ellis, Sara Moarif, Joy Aeree Kim
The Bali Action Plan (BAP) indicated the importance of "measurable, reportable and verifiable" (MRV) greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation actions and commitments, as well as support for GHG mitigation actions, in the post-2012 climate framework. Negotiations underway for this framework have...
  N° 2009/03   01 juin 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/sectoral-approaches-and-the-carbon-market_5k4559g5snzq-en
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Sectoral Approaches and the Carbon Market
Richard Baron, Barbara Buchner, Jane Ellis
Sectoral approaches are proposed as a means to broaden the global scope of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation to developing countries. Market mechanisms are put forward in that context to create incentives for mitigation in developing countries beyond the existing Clean Development Mechanism...
  N° 2009/02   01 mai 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/linking-mitigation-actions-in-developing-countries-with-mitigation-support_5k455r1485q4-en
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Linking Mitigation Actions in Developing Countries with Mitigation Support
Joy Aeree Kim, Jan Corfee-Morlot, Philippine de T’Serclaes
The Bali Action Plan introduced the notion of linking GHG mitigation action in developing countries with support for such action, in a "measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV)" manner. However, it does not specify the relationship or link that may be made between nationally appropriate...
  N° 2009/01   01 mars 2009 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/ghg-mitigation-actions_5k4695890xd6-en
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GHG Mitigation Actions
Jane Ellis, Sara Moarif
The Bali Action Plan (BAP) language on "measurable, reportable and verifiable" (MRV) greenhouse gas mitigation actions and commitments for a post-2012 climate framework was introduced to apply both to developed countries’ greenhouse gas (GHG) commitments and actions (paragraph 1(b)(i) of the...
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