OECD Environment Working Papers

The Political Economy of British Columbia's Carbon Tax
ISSN :
1997-0900 (en ligne)
DOI :
10.1787/19970900
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This series is designed to make available to a wider readership selected studies on environmental issues prepared for use within the OECD. Authorship is usually collective, but principal authors are named. The papers are generally available only in their original language English or French with a summary in the other if available.
 
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Page: 1 (N° 63) , 2 (N° 11) | Suivant
Sélectionner Numéro Date TitreCliquez pour accéder
  N° 63   08 oct 2013 Cliquez pour accéder:  The Political Economy of British Columbia's Carbon Tax
Kathryn Harrison
In July 2008, the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC) launched North America’s first revenue-neutral carbon tax reform. The tax, which applied to all combustion sources of all fossil fuels, was introduced at a rate of CAD 10 per tonne of CO2, with a schedule for annual increases of CAD 5...
  N° 62   03 oct 2013 Cliquez pour accéder:  A Characterisation of Environmental Labelling and Information Schemes
Guillaume Gruère
This report provides a comprehensive overview of the international landscape of environmental labelling and information schemes (ELIS), defined as policies and initiatives that aim to provide information about one or more aspects of the environmental performance of a product or service...
  N° 61   10 déc 2013 Cliquez pour accéder:  The Political Economy of Fuel Subsidies in Colombia
Helena Garcia Romero, Laura Calderon Etter
Colombia has made progress towards eliminating fuel and diesel subsidies and reducing discretionary spaces allowing for artificially low fuel prices, but challenges remain. Colombia has provided explicit and implicit subsidies to gasoline and diesel since 1983, costing the government up to 1.6%...
  N° 59   03 oct 2013 Cliquez pour accéder:  Ireland's Carbon Tax and the Fiscal Crisis
Frank J. Convery, Louise Dunne, Deirdre Joyce
Beginning in late 2008, Ireland experienced a fiscal crisis. This resulted in November 2010 in agreement between the Irish government and the European Central Bank, the European Commission and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) – known collectively as ‘the Troika’ – whereby the latter...
  N° 58   11 sep 2013 Cliquez pour accéder:  Addressing Competitiveness and Carbon Leakage Impacts Arising from Multiple Carbon Markets
Elisa Lanzi, Damian Mullaly, Jean Chateau, Rob Dellink
Competitiveness and carbon leakage issues have been some of the main concerns in the implementation and discussions of climate policies. These concerns are particularly important in the presence of multiple carbon markets since differences in climate change policy approaches may have impacts on...
  N° 57   14 mai 2013 Cliquez pour accéder:  Effectiveness of Policies and Strategies to Increase the Capacity Utilisation of Intermittent Renewable Power Plants
David Benatia, Nick Johnstone, Ivan Haščič
Intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, will become increasingly important in the electricity supply mix if ambitious renewable energy targets are to be met. This paper presents evidence on the effectiveness of different strategies and measures to increase the capacity...
  N° 56   21 mai 2013 Cliquez pour accéder:  Mobilising Private Investment in Sustainable Transport
Géraldine Ang, Virginie Marchal
Transport infrastructure is a pillar of economic development and a key contributor to climate change. Globally, transport-related greenhouse gas emissions are expected to double by 2050 in the absence of new policies. There is an urgent need to scale-up and shift transport infrastructure...
  N° 55   19 avr 2013 Cliquez pour accéder:  Lessons from 15 Years of Experience with the Dutch Tax Allowance for Energy Investments for Firms
Arjan Ruijs, Herman R.J. Vollebergh
Since 1997, the Netherlands has had a tax allowance scheme that was introduced to promote investments in energy-saving technologies and sustainable energy production. This so-called Energy Investment Tax Allowance (EIA in Dutch) reduces up-front investment costs for firms investing in the...
  N° 54   10 avr 2013 Cliquez pour accéder:  National Adaptation Planning
Michael Mullan, Nicholas Kingsmill, Arnoldo Matus Kramer, Shardul Agrawala
Since the first OECD country published its national adaptation strategy in 2005, there has been a marked increase in national planning for climate change adaptation. This paper provides an overview of national adaptation planning activity across OECD countries and identifies some of the...
  N° 53   12 déc 2012 Cliquez pour accéder:  Environmental Innovation in Germany
Ivan Haščič
This paper reviews the recent experience of Germany in encouraging innovation to reduce negative environmental impacts of economic activity. The essence of the German approach to policy-induced environmental innovation is discussed in the context of changing policy objectives, and illustrated...
  N° 52   14 déc 2012 Cliquez pour accéder:  Towards Consistent and Effective Carbon Pricing in Germany?
Ivana Capozza, Joseph Curtin
Germany committed itself to challenging greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets to 2020 and beyond. It has implemented a composite mix of policy measures to achieve its climate change mitigation goals, including a range of market-based instruments. These measures have helped...
  N° 51   05 déc 2012 Cliquez pour accéder:  Testing the Effect of Defaults on the Thermostat Settings of OECD Employees
Zack Brown, Nick Johnstone, Ivan Haščič, Laura Vong, Francis Barascud
Default options have been shown to affect behaviour in a variety of economic choice tasks, including health care and retirement savings. Less research has tested whether defaults affect behaviour in the domain of energy efficiency. This study uses data from a randomized controlled experiment in...
  N° 50   16 nov 2012 Cliquez pour accéder:  Climate Mitigation and Adaptation in Africa
Ivan Haščič, Jérôme Silva, Nick Johnstone
This paper presents comparative data on innovation in selected climate change mitigation and adaptation technologies in the context of Africa. Such analysis informs policy aimed at encouraging international technology transfer and development of domestic innovation capacities. We present...
  N° 49   07 nov 2012 Cliquez pour accéder:  Behavioural Economics and Environmental Incentives
Jason Shogren
This review aims to improve our understanding of the implications of the insights from behavioural economics for environmental policy design. The review focuses on the question of incentive design in two broad areas — risk, conflict and cooperation; and mechanism design. A number of lessons for...
  N° 48   12 nov 2012 Cliquez pour accéder:  Towards a Green Investment Policy Framework
Jan Corfee-Morlot, Virginie Marchal, Céline Kauffmann, Christopher Kennedy, Fiona Stewart, Christopher Kaminker, Geraldine Ang
Achieving low-carbon, climate-resilient (LCR) development is a policy goal of many governments today, and investment in built-infrastructure – in the energy, transport, water and building sectors – is a central part of the challenge. In the face of growing infrastructure needs and fiscal...
  N° 47   20 sep 2012 Cliquez pour accéder:  Green Transformation of Small Businesses
Eugene Mazur
This report aims to help environmental and other competent authorities in OECD countries to promote green business practices among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It analyses different ways to establish environmental regulatory requirements for facilities with low environmental risk...
  N° 46   23 nov 2012 Cliquez pour accéder:  Mobilising Investment in Low Carbon, Climate Resilient Infrastructure
Christopher Kennedy, Jan Corfee-Morlot
This paper addresses several broad issues for governments aiming to encourage private sector investment in low-carbon climate resilient (LCR) infrastructure, in both developed and developing world contexts. LCR infrastructure is defined, recognizing the interdependencies between infrastructure...
  N° 45   14 sep 2012 Cliquez pour accéder:  The Determinants of Invention in Electricity Generation Technologies
Elisa Lanzi, Ivan Haščič, Nick Johnstone
This paper analyses the determinants of invention in efficiency-enhancing electricity generation technologies that have the potential to facilitate climate change mitigation efforts, including fossil fuelbased technologies aimed at reducing carbon emissions, renewables and nuclear technologies....
  N° 44   20 mars 2012 Cliquez pour accéder:  Environmental Quality and Life Satisfaction
Jérôme Silva, Femke de Keulenaer, Nick Johnstone
Environmental conditions are likely to have an effect on people’s sense of life satisfaction, both directly and indirectly. In recent years there has been a burgeoning literature assessing the relationship between measures of environmental quality and subjective well-being. This type of studies...
  N° 42   20 fév 2012 Cliquez pour accéder:  International Technology Agreements for Climate Change
Ivan Haščič, Nick Johnstone, Nadja Kahrobaie
This paper examines the effect of multilateral energy technology initiatives, so called "Implementing Agreements", on international research collaboration in seven important climate change mitigation technologies. The analysis is conducted using patent data on 33 OECD countries during the...
  N° 41   15 déc 2011 Cliquez pour accéder:  An Economic Projection to 2050: The OECD "ENV-Linkages" Model Baseline
Jean Chateau, Cuauhtemoc Rebolledo, Rob Dellink
This document describes economic baseline projections to 2050 for several world regions. It describes how socio-economic drivers are used to create a consistent projection of economic activity for the coming decades, applying the general framework of "conditional convergence". This economic...
  N° 40   26 mars 2012 Cliquez pour accéder:  Adaptation and Innovation
Shardul Agrawala, Cécile Bordier, Victoria Schreitter, Valerie Karplus
Innovation in technologies that promote mitigation and adaptation will be critical for tackling climate change. It can decrease the costs of policy measures and provide new opportunities for the private sector. However, most discussions of innovation have focused on mitigation, while little...
  N° 39   30 nov 2011 Cliquez pour accéder:  Private Sector Engagement in Adaptation to Climate Change: Approaches to Managing Climate Risks
Shardul Agrawala, Maëlis Carraro, Nicholas Kingsmill, Elisa Lanzi, Michael Mullan, Guillaume Prudent-Richard
There is growing international interest in the planning, financing and implementation of adaptation to climate change. However, the discussion to date has primarily focused on the public sector’s role, with the private sector viewed primarily as a source of funding or financing. Relatively...
  N° 38   05 avr 2012 Cliquez pour accéder:  Monitoring and Evaluation for Adaptation: Lessons from Development Co-operation Agencies
Nicolina Lamhauge, Elisa Lanzi, Shardul Agrawala
In the context of scaled up funding for climate change adaptation, it is more important than ever to ensure the effectiveness, equity and efficiency of adaptation interventions. Robust monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is an essential part of this, both to ensure that the prospective benefits of...
  N° 37   29 jui 2011 Cliquez pour accéder:  Sources of Finance, Investment Policies and Plant Entry in the Renewable Energy Sector
Margarita Kalamova, Christopher Kaminker, Nick Johnstone
This report looks specifically at the full array of public policies promoting investment in the renewable energy sector, and discusses their impact on plant entry into the market, with the support of case studies focusing on Germany, the U.S.A. and Australia. It examines differing risk/return...
  N° 36   29 jui 2011 Cliquez pour accéder:  Harmonising Climate Risk Management
Anne Hammill, Thomas Tanner
Development planners and project managers have used a wide variety of tools to manage a broad range of environmental risks, including those posed by climate variability, for a long time. Some of these tools have also now been modified to take into account the risks posed by climate change. At...
  N° 35   21 juin 2011 Cliquez pour accéder:  Policy Interventions to Address Health Impacts Associated with Air Pollution, Unsafe Water Supply and Sanitation, and Hazardous Chemicals
Alistair Hunt
The purpose of the paper is to review the recent empirical literature relating to the quantification and valuation of the human health impacts of air pollution, hazardous chemicals, and unsafe water and sanitation, and their use in cost-benefit analysis, as an input to environmental policy...
  N° 34   31 mai 2011 Cliquez pour accéder:  Environmental Enforcement in Decentralised Governance Systems
Eugene Mazur
This report analyses approaches to managing environmental compliance monitoring and enforcement in several OECD countries with decentralised systems of environmental governance. It focuses principally on strategies and instruments for promoting consistency in the implementation of national...
  N° 33   01 jui 2011 Cliquez pour accéder:  Environmental Policy Stringency and Foreign Direct Investment
Margarita Kalamova, Nick Johnstone
This paper examines empirically whether countries with relatively more lax environmental regimes have a comparative advantage in their competition for foreign direct investment. It seeks to contribute to the literature in several important ways. First, we use a measure of environmental...
  N° 32   12 déc 2011 Cliquez pour accéder:  Employment Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Policies in OECD
Jean Chateau, Anne Saint-Martin, Thomas Manfredi
Using a computable general equilibrium, this paper quantifies the GDP and employment effects of an illustrative greenhouse gas emissions reduction policy. The paper first analyses the direct negative economic effects of the emissions restrictions on GDP and examines labour sectoral...
  N° 31   28 mars 2011 Cliquez pour accéder:  Medium-term Management of Green Budget: The Case of Ukraine
Nelly Petkova, Rafal Stanek, Angela Bularga
The purpose of this study is to examine the medium-term budget planning process in Ukraine and the extent to which this approach is used within the environmental sector. It aims to assist the Ukrainian government to integrate environmental programmes more effectively into overall programming,...
  N° 30   15 déc 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Climate Policy and Technological Innovation and Transfer
Ivan Haščič, Nick Johnstone, Fleur Watson, Christopher Kaminker
Technological innovation can lower the cost of achieving environmental objectives. As such, understanding the linkages between environmental policy and technological innovation in achieving environmental objectives is important. This is particularly true in the area of climate change, where the...
  N° 29   19 nov 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Cities and Carbon Market Finance
Christa Clapp, Alexia Leseur, Oliver Sartor, Gregory Briner, Jan Corfee-Morlot
The importance of cities in climate policy stems from the simple reality that they house the majority of the world’s population, two-thirds of world energy use and over 70% of global energy use emissions. At the international level, global carbon markets have become an important new source of...
  N° 28   18 mars 2011 Cliquez pour accéder:  Greening Growth in Japan
Ivana Capozza
A decade of sluggish economic growth, concluding with the sharpest recession since the Second World War, has underlined the need for Japan to develop a new growth model. Such a model should restore public finances and long-term growth while preserving environmental quality and ensuring...
  N° 27   22 nov 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Flood Risks, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Benefits in Mumbai
Stéphane Hallegatte, Nicola Ranger, Sumana Bhattacharya, Murthy Bachu, Satya Priya, K. Dhore, Farhat Rafique, P. Mathur, Nicolas Naville, Fanny Henriet, Anand Patwardhan, K. Narayanan, Subimal Ghosh, Subhankar Karmakar, Unmesh Patnaik, Abhijat Abhayankar, Sanjib Pohit, Jan Corfee-Morlot, Celine Herweijer
Managing risks from extreme events will be a crucial component of climate change adaptation. In this study, we demonstrate an approach to assess future risks and quantify the benefits of adaptation options at a city-scale, with application to flood risk in Mumbai. In 2005, Mumbai experienced...
  N° 26   10 fév 2011 Cliquez pour accéder:  Capacity Development for Environmental Management in the Agricultural Sector in Developing Countries
Constance L. Neely
The relationships between agriculture, the environment, and development are deep and complex. By 2050 a 70 per cent increase in production will be needed to feed an additional 2.7 billion people on an already degraded natural resource base. In light of this and amid the realities of climate...
  N° 25   10 fév 2011 Cliquez pour accéder:  Capacity Development for Environmental Management and Governance in the Energy Sector in Developing Countries
George Matheson, Laurie Giroux
The relationships between energy, the environment, and development are deep and complex. The International Energy Agency has noted that energy is deeply implicated in each of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of human development. Energy services provide an essential input to...
  N° 24   29 nov 2011 Cliquez pour accéder:  Incorporating Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Environmental Impact Assessments
Shardul Agrawala, Arnoldo Matus Kramer, Guillaume Prudent-Richard, Marcus Sainsbury
National governments and development agencies have invested considerable effort in recent years to develop methodologies and tools to screen their projects for the risks posed by climate change. However, these tools have largely been developed by the climate change community and their...
  N° 23   10 août 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Plan or React? Analysis of Adaptation Costs and Benefits Using Integrated Assessment Models
Shardul Agrawala, Francesco Bosello, Carlo Carraro, Kelly de Bruin, Enrica De Cian, Rob Dellink, Elisa Lanzi
Financing for adaptation is a core element in the ongoing international negotiations on climate change. This has motivated a number of recent global estimates of adaptation costs. While important from an agenda setting perspective, many of these estimates nevertheless have a number of...
  N° 22   04 août 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Costs, Revenues, and Effectiveness of the Copenhagen Accord Emission Pledges for 2020
Rob Dellink, Gregory Briner, Christa Clapp
Tackling the problem of global climate change requires a high level of international cooperation. Many countries have pledged targets or actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the Appendices to the Copenhagen Accord. This analysis examines the costs and effectiveness of these pledges,...
  N° 21   04 août 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Buying and Cancelling Allowances as an Alternative to Offsets for the Voluntary Market
Anja Kollmuss, Michael Lazarus
In recent years, businesses, local governments and individuals have set goals for reducing their emissions of greenhouse gases. In addition to directly reducing their own emissions, many of these entities have purchased carbon offsets to help achieve their mitigation goals. Yet establishing...
  N° 20   04 août 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Towards Global Carbon Pricing
Rob Dellink, Stéphanie Jamet, Jean Chateau, Romain Duval
Emissions trading systems (ETS) can play a major role in a cost-effective climate policy framework. Both direct linking of ETSs and indirect linking through a common crediting mechanism can reduce costs of action. We use a global recursive-dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess...
  N° 19   03 août 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Voluntary Carbon Markets
Pierre Guigon
In this paper, we aim to examine how voluntary carbon markets can provide a valuable contribution to strengthening domestic and international climate policies. Voluntary markets are defined as small and unregulated segments of an established carbon market that are driven by voluntary offsetting...
  N° 18   10 juin 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Outcome Performance Measures of Environmental Compliance Assurance
Eugene Mazur
This report analyses the experience of ten OECD countries in the design and implementation of quantitative indicators used to assess the outcomes of environmental enforcement authorities’ efforts to ensure compliance with pollution prevention and control regulations. To respond to the growing...
  N° 17   05 mai 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Differentiated Intellectual Property Regimes for Environmental and Climate Technologies
Keith Maskus
Prior to the Copenhagen meeting on developing a new framework for climate-change policy there were sharp differences between the positions of developed and developing countries regarding the role of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in fostering international technology transfer (ITT)....
  N° 16   16 mars 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Environmental Policy Design Characteristics and Technological Innovation
Nick Johnstone, Ivan Haščič, Margarita Kalamova
This paper focuses on the issue of innovation and technology transfer in the areas of air pollution abatement, wastewater effluent treatment, solid waste management, and climate change mitigation. The paper describes the trends in innovative activity related to selected areas of pollution...
  N° 15   12 fév 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Assessing the Role of Microfinance in Fostering Adaptation to Climate Change
Shardul Agrawala, Maëlis Carraro
Much of the current policy debate on adaptation to climate change has focussed on estimation of adaptation costs, ways to raise and to scale-up funding for adaptation, and the design of the international institutional architecture for adaptation financing. There is however little or no emphasis...
  N° 14   02 déc 2009 Cliquez pour accéder:  Cities, Climate Change and Multilevel Governance
Jan Corfee-Morlot, Lamia Kamal-Chaoui, Michael G. Donovan, Ian Cochran, Alexis Robert, Pierre-Jonathan Teasdale
Cities represent a challenge and an opportunity for climate change policy. As the hubs of economic activity, cities generate the bulk of GHG emissions and are thus important to mitigation strategies. Urban planning will shape future trends and the concentration of population, socio-economic...
  N° 13   11 jan 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Linkages between Environmental Policy and Competitiveness
OCDE
Debates exist between those who claim that environmental policy will impose additional burdens and costs on industries, thus impairing their competitiveness, and those who claim that improved environmental performance can spur competitiveness. These arguments often surface when...
  N° 12   18 mai 2010 Cliquez pour accéder:  Enhancing Developing Country Access to Eco-Innovation
David Ockwell, Jim Watson, Alexandra Mallett, Ruediger Haum, Gordon MacKerron, Anne-Marie Verbeken
The deployment of eco-innovations in developing countries is a key driver of their contribution to efficiently addressing global environmental challenges. It is also a key driver of markets for eco-innovation and sustainable economic development. This report explores the barriers developing...
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