Higher Education Management and Policy

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1726-9822 (en ligne)
1682-3451 (imprimé)
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Previously published as Higher Education Management, Higher Education Management and Policy (HEMP) is published three times each year and is edited by the OECD’s Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education. It covers the field through articles and reports on such issues as quality assurance, human resources, funding, and internationalisation. It also is a source of information on activities and events organised by OECD’s IMHE Programme.

Egalement disponible en: Français

Volume 16, Numéro 1 You do not have access to this content

Date de publication :
07 avr 2004
Egalement disponible en: Français

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  07 avr 2004 Cliquez pour accéder:  Incentives and Accountability
Sir John Daniel

Thank you for inviting me to make some concluding remarks at this important conference. My brief is to reflect on the themes of the conference and to bring forth insights of how these ideas play out in different settings. In his instructions to me Richard Yelland, Head of Programme, added that after two days of concentrated discussions on the challenges facing the managers and leaders of higher education institutions, participants would be looking forward to a provocative address on incentives and accountability in higher education...

  07 avr 2004 Cliquez pour accéder:  Institutional Autonomy Versus Government Control The New University Act in Austria
Rudolf Neuhauser

Following prolonged discussion, the Austrian government has passed a new University Act which will provide universities with a semiautonomous status. The reform is the most incisive change of the university system for the past 150 years and has been preceded by an equally momentous change in the status of the teaching faculty and staff, all future appointments no longer providing civil servant status any more. Major points in discussions between the Rectors Conference, the organizations representing the professoriate and staff, and the Ministry have been the balance of power between the institutions, representatives from outside, and the Ministry, as well as the amount of control to be exercised by the Ministry. In the view of the institutions, the legislation is heavily weighted towards the latter leaving too little room for initiatives from the faculties and participation in the central steering groups....

  07 avr 2004 Cliquez pour accéder:  Incentives and Institutional Changes in Higher Education
N. V. Varghese

Educational systems worldwide still continue to rely heavily on public sources of funding. Nearly 80% of the expenditure on higher education comes from public sources in OECD countries; the share is even larger in developing countries. There is a concerted effort in many countries to reduce the reliance on state funding and move towards market-friendly reforms. This involves adjustment in the macro-policy framework to induce change at the institutional level. Institutional changes could be brought about either by relying on "mandates" or on "rewards". Mandates demand a particular form of institutional behaviour that is accompanied by the threat of punishment for a failure to comply. Rewards, on the other hand, provide incentive and motivation to change. Both rewards and incentives become effective when public policy provides a choice in behavioural changes at the institutional level. The motivation for a change of behaviour will depend on the level of performance that conditions a reward on the one hand and on the expectation for obtaining a reward, on completion of the task, on the other. In general, mandates are more easily complied with when institutions are struggling to survive, whereas incentives and rewards are preferable when institutions are striving to revive and grow. Incentives and reward systems are relied upon in many countries to induce changes in higher education. This paper will focus on the potential of effecting institutional changes through incentives...

  07 avr 2004 Cliquez pour accéder:  Performance Indicators
Michael Conlon

In this paper the author examines the implementation of key performance indicators in Canadian post-secondary education institutions. More specifically he charts their implementation from the perspective of students and the effect they have on the quality and delivery of education. Key performance indicators (KPI) in Canada are administered by the ten provincial governments. In each of the jurisdictions in which they have been introduced KPIs have tied various forms of institutional performance to core funding and capital funding allocation.The paper offers a comparative analysis of how certain criteria are promoted by the establishment of KPIs. It examines the introduction of KPIs in three provinces: Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia. In each case the complex set of politics and institutional relations at stake in the establishment of KPIs are examined. A comparative examination of each case provides signposts for best practices as well as instructive lessons in where and how quickly the very definition of accountability becomes a highly politicised term of contention. Finally, the paper makes proactive policy suggestions, from the standpoint of students, about the criteria that should be used in the establishment of KPIs. At all points the paper (re) inserts the perspective of students into the ongoing dialogue about accountability and the changing identity of higher education....

  07 avr 2004 Cliquez pour accéder:  Universality or Specialisation?
Christian Allies, Michel Troquet

Trade globalisation is beginning to affect universities worldwide. In response to this outside pressure, institutions have become more geared to gaining international repute through research than to maintaining their reputation at home for the quality of their teaching. As a result of this focus on research, French universities, for example, are losing ground to other kinds of higher education institutions. One of the main reasons is that research encourages specialisation, whereas the market increasingly requires multi-disciplinary and cross-cutting skills. In order to explore how society’s contradictory demands can be met, two opposing models will be presented, one that seeks to preserve the universalist role of universities and another that would prompt higher education institutions to become increasingly specialised in pursuit of research excellence. Between these two extremes, there is perhaps a middle way that is difficult to follow, but that is exceptionally enriching for the university community, provided that university management is rethought. The primary mistake that can be made in any process of change is to seek to merge the role of individuals with that of institutions. Although universities can continue to pull together all the various threads that contribute to economic development, individuals cannot be expected to have the same multi-faceted profile. This means that the quality of tomorrow’s universities will depend on the quality of interpersonal relationships and how they are managed....

  07 avr 2004 Cliquez pour accéder:  Gestalt Revisited
Brian D. Denman

International university co-operation is in a constant state of metamorphosis. Its future rests upon extraneous forces such as globalization and internationalization and also upon those who make policy decisions. Many international university organizations are auditing their programs and initiatives to such a degree that the cost effectiveness of such quality control measures are put into question. Institutional leaders are often forced to contend with low morale, trying their best to bolster a sense of hope, meaning and potential to international initiatives that are more likely to be financially sound than altruistic. Although current data suggest that bottom-top approaches to international co-operation are more likely to withstand the changes of time, it is often left to top-bottom directives to set a course for action. Drawing upon a specific and recently updated research study, this paper examines salient programs and initiatives that would otherwise not exist had it not been for certain policy makers who have actively advocated and promoted international university co-operation. It is in this vein that Wertheimer’s Gestalt approach is re-examined....

  07 avr 2004 Cliquez pour accéder:  Corruption in Higher Education
Georgy Petrov, Paul Temple

Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by the authors, in the light of these theoretical positions. While both states examined here have a common political heritage, higher education corruption appears to be of a diverging character in the two states. We suggest that social capital offers a helpful theory in understanding the varying levels of corruption encountered in the two states. Social capital theory also perhaps suggests that significant reductions in the extent of corruption will not be achieved by purely technical means (such as changes in organisational arrangements), but require a broader approach to achieve a strengthened civil society....

  07 avr 2004 Cliquez pour accéder:  Widening Access to Higher Education in the UK
Bob Osborne, Ian Shuttleworth

This paper examines the development of policies designed to widen access to higher education policy in the United Kingdom. These policies have evolved in the context of the devolution of political authority to the Scottish Parliament and Assemblies in Wales and Northern Ireland, which has resulted in some policy variation. The paper examines the "post-code premium" paid by the funding authorities to universities based on the students from poorer areas. By using Northern Ireland data the paper demonstrates the major problems to this approach arising from the "ecological fallacy". The paper concludes by expressing surprise that policy developed with little apparent awareness of these problems....

  07 avr 2004 Cliquez pour accéder:  Growing Research
Ellen Hazelkorn

Across OECD countries, governments, policy makers and university managers are examining the future of higher education and questioning the role of educational research. These discussions are taking place against the backdrop that knowledge production and the contribution of higher education to the economy and the prestige and standing of nations is rapidly transforming the once benign higher education system into a competitive market place. Moreover, many governments believe the existing system of funding and/or organisation is no longer sustainable. Should research funding be spread equitably across many institutions or should only a few concentrate on research and the rest focus on teaching and training? If massification was a major force on higher education in OECD countries in the latter half of the 20th century, then competition driven in part by institutional research capacity is playing a similar role in the early 21st century. These forces are influencing in a very directive way how individual institutions are organising and managing themselves. This article looks at the specific challenges faced by new and emerging higher education institutions of growing research from a "fragile base". In the process, their experiences raise wider questions for both higher education institutions and governments...

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