12 nov 2007
Financing Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in EECCA Countries, including Progress in Achieving Water-Related Millennium Development Goals (MDGS)
At their meeting in Almaty in October 2000, EECCA Ministers of Environment, Finance, and Economy, Ministers and senior representatives from several OECD countries, as well as senior officials from International Financial Institutions (IFI), International Organisations, non-governmental organisations, and the private sector, recognised the critical condition of the urban water supply and sanitation sector in EECCA and endorsed "Guiding Principles for the Reform of the Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in the NIS". Participants requested the EAP Task Force to assess progress in implementing these Guiding Principles for review at a major conference of stakeholders that took place in 2005 in Yerevan, Armenia. This paper is an update of a report that was prepared for the Ministerial meeting in Yerevan, drawing on more recent data, and responds to the Ministers' request to prepare such a paper for the Environment for Europe Conference in 2007.
12 nov 2007
Trends in Environmental Finance in EECCA
This report examines developments in environmental financing in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) since 2000. It focuses on expenditures, both domestic sources of finance, as well as external environmental assistance; the latter includes Official Development Assistance/Official Assistance (ODA/OA), and lending from International Financial Institutions (IFIs).
12 nov 2007
Progress in Modernising Environmental Regulation and Compliance Assurance in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia
In 2003, by endorsing the Guiding Principles for Reform of Environmental Enforcement Authorities in Transition Economies, the countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia (EECCA) agreed on a reference model to guide the modernisation of their systems for environmental regulation and compliance assurance. This report reviews their progress in implementing the Guiding Principles. The main conclusion is that countries took action to comply with the Guiding Principles, mostly to elevate the status of environmental enforcement authorities, clarify responsibilities, and provide training and a better infrastructure. While such improvements are an important basis for further reform, continued lack of progress in modernising strategies and instruments of work will inhibit institutional and environmental performance.
12 nov 2007
Mobilising Finance for Environmental Priorities
This paper argues that the sustained provision of adequate financial resources for the environment is a prerequisite for addressing environmental challenges in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) and South-Eastern Europe (SEE). It sets out options for how optimal use could be made of the various available sources of environmental finance, including domestic public expenditure, private sector participation and official development assistance. Recommendations are provided for Ministers on priority actions for ensuring that financial resources are made available for the environment. EECCA and SEE governments need to continue to prioritise the environment in policy and public expenditure frameworks, and make better use of incentive-based instruments. They also need to create a suitable climate for the private sector to participate in environmental financing. The international community must ensure that IFI loans for environmental investments are more accessible, especially for low-income countries, including by providing adequate grant co-financing. Finally, EECCA and SEE countries should strengthen their capacity to prepare environmental investment projects, with effective support from IFIs and donors.