19 oct 2006
Progress on Adaptation to Climate Change in Developed Countries
This paper provides an assessment of broad trends in progress on assessment and implementation of adaptation to climate change in "developed countries", defined here as being Member states of the OECD and/or Parties listed under Annex I of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Primary inputs to this analysis are the National Communications (NCs) by these countries to the UNFCCC. NCs follow a standardised reporting format which facilitates cross-national comparison. They also reflect "whole government" perspectives. At the same time, however, the coverage of particular issues within these documents need not be comprehensive, nor might it necessarily reflect policy priorities on the ground. Therefore, this paper also examines other policies and projects which highlight progress on implementing adaptation, but which have not been reflected in the NCs.
19 oct 2006
A Contribution to the "Purchasing Power Parity vs. Market Exchange Rates for Use in Long-Term Scenarios" Discussion
Market Exchange Rates (MER) balance the demand and supply for international currencies, while Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) exchange rates capture the differences between the cost of a given bundle of goods and services in different countries. When undertaking multi-country analysis of environmental issues (such as climate change) that includes different currencies, a decision has to be made as to whether to use PPP or MER in the analytical framework. The distinction between them is particularly germane in inter-temporal studies that postulate future scenarios. PPPs are generally favoured for their closer link to welfare, but MERS are necessarily the basis of international trade, so it is difficult to choose between them. Some authors have noted some empirical regularity between them and have sought to exploit this to avoid choosing between PPP and MER. In this paper, it is shown that such ad hoc adjustments are not necessary when structural changes are accounted for.
19 oct 2006
A Review of Technical Assistance and Capacity Building Initiatives for Trade Facilitation
Trade facilitation reforms in developing countries can have an important impact on development and poverty reduction. Reduced costs due to shortened border delays, streamlined food supply chains, longer agricultural supply seasons, enhanced government revenue, improved governance and increased foreign direct investment have all been shown to accompany trade facilitation reforms in developing countries.
This Review of Technical Assistance and Capacity Building Initiatives for Trade Facilitation ("Review") aims to strengthen the design, delivery and evaluation of development assistance programmes undertaken by donors in this important area of development cooperation. It provides an overview of past technical assistance and capacity building for trade facilitation and highlights key lessons learned.
19 oct 2006
Guidance for Managing Joint Evaluations
This booklet is a practical guide for managers of joint evaluations of development assistance programmes. It is a revision and update, in view of new experiences, of the DAC publication Effective Practices in Conducting a Joint Multi-Donor Evaluation (2000). The omission of the words "Multi-Donor" from the new title reflects the momentum in development cooperation towards broader partnerships and, specifically, joint evaluations undertaken with the participation of non-donor agencies. The update is based on the findings and recommendations in a DAC Evaluation Network Working Paper prepared by consultant Horst Breier in 2005.2 It also draws on the outcomes of a workshop: "Joint Evaluations: Challenging the Conventional Wisdom - the View from Developing Country Partners" (Nairobi, 2005) and on inputs and feedback from members and partners of the Evaluation Network.