OECD Economics Department Working Papers

Determinants of Female Entrepreneurship in India
1815-1973 (en ligne)
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Working papers from the Economics Department of the OECD that cover the full range of the Department’s work including the economic situation, policy analysis and projections; fiscal policy, public expenditure and taxation; and structural issues including ageing, growth and productivity, migration, environment, human capital, housing, trade and investment, labour markets, regulatory reform, competition, health, and other issues.

The views expressed in these papers are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or of the governments of its member countries.

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Page: 1 (N° 1191) … , 2 (N° 1140) , 3 (N° 1089) , 4 (N° 1039) … 24 (N° 37) | Suivant
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  N° 1089   02 oct 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/fiscal-devaluation-can-it-help-to-boost-competitiveness_5k3z2dckn2bw-en
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Fiscal Devaluation – Can it Help to Boost Competitiveness?
Isabell Koske
The recent crisis has revealed large differences in external competitiveness between euro area member countries. Since nominal exchange rate devaluation is not an option for members of a currency area, governments in troubled member countries have been considering so-called fiscal devaluation,...
  N° 1088   01 oct 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/how-to-achieve-growth-and-equity-friendly-fiscal-consolidation_5k407lwvzkkh-en
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How to Achieve Growth- and Equity-friendly Fiscal Consolidation?
Boris Cournède, Antoine Goujard, Álvaro Pina
Despite sustained efforts made in recent years to rein in budget deficits, a majority of OECD countries still face substantial fiscal consolidation needs. The choices made about which spending areas to curtail and which taxes to hike will have implications for near-term activity and long-term...
  N° 1087   12 sep 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/improving-school-to-work-transitions-in-new-zealand_5k40d6b633hl-en
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Improving School-to-work Transitions in New Zealand
Alexandra Bibbee
The NZ labour market is among the most flexible in the OECD, and outcomes for its young people have been among the best. However, labour-market opportunities are heavily determined by initial education, where New Zealand’s system is also successful and innovative in many ways. Average PISA...
  N° 1086   12 sep 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-agri-food-situation-and-policies-in-switzerland_5k40d6ccd1jg-en
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The Agri-food Situation and Policies in Switzerland
Peter Jarrett, Charlotte Moeser
This paper examines the heavily supported Swiss food and agriculture sector. It reviews some of the key features and trends in the sector and reveals its low relative labour productivity in international comparison. It describes the existing policy regime, including its various forms of support...
  N° 1085   14 août 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/japan-s-challenging-debt-dynamics_5k41w045v6mp-en
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Japan's Challenging Debt Dynamics
Yvan Guillemette, Jan Strasky
This working paper presents the background and the details of the simulations behind Box 1.4 of the May 2013 OECD Economic Outlook. A small simulation model is used to evaluate the contribution that the three pillars of the government’s strategy – fiscal consolidation, growth-boosting...
  N° 1084   16 août 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/transitions-in-and-out-of-unemployment-among-young-people-in-the-irish-recession_5k41zq81lh5k-en
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Transitions in and out of Unemployment among Young People in the Irish Recession
Elish Kelly, Seamus McGuinness, Philip O’Connell, David Haugh, Alberto González Pandiella
Young people have been hit hard by unemployment during the Irish recession. While much research has been undertaken to study the effects of the recession on overall labour market dynamics, little is known about the specific effects on youth unemployment and the associated challenges. This paper...
  N° 1083   06 août 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/is-there-convergence-of-russia-s-regions_5k422105ht33-en
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Is There Convergence of Russia's Regions?
Hartmut Lehmann, Maria Giulia Silvagni
This paper analyses convergence in per capita gross regional product of Russia’s regions during the period 1995-2010, when regional data are available. Using a panel regression framework we find no evidence for beta-convergence. Instead we find divergence, which is, however, attenuated over...
  N° 1082   12 août 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-benefits-and-costs-of-highly-expansionary-monetary-policy_5k41zq8lwj9v-en
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The Benefits and Costs of Highly Expansionary Monetary Policy
Łukasz Rawdanowicz, Romain Bouis, Shingo Watanabe
How far to go – and to remain – in the direction of highly expansionary monetary policy hinges on the balance of marginal benefits and costs of additional monetary easing and its expected evolution over time. This paper sketches a framework for assessing this balance and applies it to four OECD...
  N° 1081   12 août 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-effectiveness-of-monetary-policy-since-the-onset-of-the-financial-crisis_5k41zq9brrbr-en
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The Effectiveness of Monetary Policy since the Onset of the Financial Crisis
Romain Bouis, Łukasz Rawdanowicz, Jean-Paul Renne, Shingo Watanabe, Ane Kathrine Christensen
In the wake of the Great Recession, a massive monetary policy stimulus was provided in the main OECD economies. It helped to stabilise financial markets and avoid deflation. Nonetheless, GDP growth has been sluggish and in some countries lower than expected given the measures taken, and...
  N° 1080   05 août 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/responding-to-key-well-being-challenges-in-austria_5k42210gg9g5-en
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Responding to Key Well-being Challenges in Austria
Rauf Gönenç, Oliver Röhn, Christian Beer, Andreas Wörgötter
Important challenges for the future of Austrian well-being arise from demographic and environmental trends. The ageing of the population calls for a fair balance between life-time pension contributions and entitlements, drawing on the recent pension reform. Such progress will allow Austrians to...
  N° 1079   05 août 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/austria-s-well-being-goes-beyond-gdp_5k422133hjnv-en
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Austria's Well-being Goes Beyond GDP
Oliver Röhn, Rauf Gönenç, Christian Beer, Romina Boarini
Austria enjoys strong material well-being and high quality of life. Steady convergence with top GDP per capita levels translated into decisive improvements in household disposable incomes while significant redistribution has ensured low income inequality and poverty. This has been combined with...
  N° 1078   23 août 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/improving-fiscal-federal-relations-for-a-stronger-mexico_5k42213gqpr3-en
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Improving Fiscal Federal Relations for a Stronger Mexico
Aida Caldera Sánchez
Mexico has achieved a high degree of decentralisation in public services, but the Mexican fiscal federal system has important shortcomings. States and municipalities have become heavily dependent on federal transfers to finance a growing share of public spending. This leaves the burden of...
  N° 1077   05 août 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/deleveraging_5k4221459fjc-en
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Deleveraging: Challenges, Progress and Policies
Romain Bouis, Ane Kathrine Christensen, Boris Cournède
In the run-up to the financial crisis, indebtedness of households and non-financial businesses rose to historically high levels in many OECD countries; gross debt of financial companies rose dramatically relative to GDP. Much of the debt accumulation appears to have been based on excessive...
  N° 1076   08 jui 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/policies-to-support-sustainable-long-term-growth-in-new-zealand_5k43gjfhwvxn-en
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Policies to support sustainable long-term growth in New Zealand
Calista Cheung
As its workforce ages and major economies shift towards producing higher value-added goods and services, New Zealand will face increasing challenges to remain globally competitive and maintain high living standards. Future growth will need to come increasingly from productivity gains, and...
  N° 1075   03 jui 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/do-structural-policies-affect-macroeconomic-stability_5k43krfllgxt-en
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Do Structural Policies Affect Macroeconomic Stability?
Volker Ziemann
Using a panel of OECD countries, this study assesses the linkages between structural policies and macroeconomic stability. Business cycle and time-series characteristics of GDP and its components are employed to define various measures for economic instability and for the persistence of adverse...
  N° 1074   01 jui 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/a-simple-fiscal-stress-testing-model_5k43nxm8hfvf-en
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A Simple Fiscal Stress Testing Model
Ondra Kamenik, Zdenek Tuma, David Vavra, Zuzana Smidova
This paper develops a simple model-based framework for stress testing fiscal consolidation strategies under different scenarios of future shocks. A baseline scenario assuming a gradual debt consolidation is presented and by assuming different future developments (e.g. lower potential growth)...
  N° 1073   01 jui 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/road-connectivity-and-the-border-effect_5k43nxmh51mw-en
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Road Connectivity and the Border Effect
Henrik Braconier, Mauro Pisu
Several studies have reported a large negative effect of national borders on the volume of trade. We provide new estimates of the border effect for continental Europe using road rather than great circle – or "as-crows-fly" – distance. Road distances for 48 180 European city pairs have been...
  N° 1072   28 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/fiscal-consolidation-across-government-levels-part-3-intergovernmental-grants-pro-or-counter-cyclical_5k43nxqrlmtf-en
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Fiscal Consolidation Across Government Levels - Part 3. Intergovernmental Grants, Pro- or Counter-cyclical?
Hansjörg Blöchliger, Balázs Égert
This paper provides empirical analysis that measures the cyclical properties of intergovernmental transfers (or grants). Modelling a fiscal policy reaction function this paper tests whether the transfers systems in OECD countries are pro- or counter-cyclical, i.e. whether they offset cyclical...
  N° 1071   28 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/fiscal-consolidation-across-government-levels-part-2-fiscal-rules-for-sub-central-governments-update-of-the-institutional-indicator_5k43nxqzhkr1-en
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Fiscal Consolidation Across Government Levels - Part 2. Fiscal Rules for Sub-central Governments, Update of the Institutional Indicator
Kaja Fredriksen
Fiscal rules that constrain sub-central government (SCG) budgeting are very common across the OECD, but there are substantial cross-country differences in their implementation and impact. This paper presents the 2011 update of the fiscal rules database established in 2005. As in 2005, budget...
  N° 1070   28 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/fiscal-consolidation-across-government-levels-part-1-how-much-what-policies_5k43nxr99zd6-en
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Fiscal Consolidation Across Government Levels - Part 1. How Much, What Policies?
Hansjörg Blöchliger
This paper provides an overview of fiscal consolidation efforts at the central and sub-central government level, both during the current and past consolidation episodes. After experiencing a deficit and debt hike during the crisis, sub-central debt is mostly stabilising. So far, sub-central...
  N° 1069   28 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/restructuring-the-electricity-sector-and-promoting-green-growth-in-japan_5k43nxrhfjtd-en
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Restructuring the Electricity Sector and Promoting Green Growth in Japan
Randall S. Jones, Myungkyoo Kim
The 2011 disaster and nuclear problems opened the door to a new energy policy, as they raised fundamental questions about the electricity system’s ability to prevent and respond to accidents. In particular, the system has had difficulty coping with the shortages caused by the accident and the...
  N° 1068   27 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/labour-market-policies-to-promote-growth-and-social-cohesion-in-korea_5k43nxrmq8xx-en
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Labour Market Policies to Promote Growth and Social Cohesion in Korea
Randall S. Jones, Satoshi Urasawa
Labour market reform to improve growth prospects and reduce inequality is a top priority in the face of rapid population ageing and a dualistic labour market. Sustaining output growth requires policies to mitigate the impact of rapid population ageing by increasing labour inputs from...
  N° 1067   27 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/education-reform-in-korea_5k43nxs1t9vh-en
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Education Reform in Korea
Randall S. Jones
The rapid expansion of education in Korea is exceptional and has played a key role in its economic development. Sustaining Korea’s growth potential in the face of demographic headwinds requires further improving the education system to boost productivity growth. One priority is to upgrade early...
  N° 1066   25 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/belgium-enhancing-the-cost-efficiency-and-flexibility-of-the-health-sector-in-belgium-to-adjust-to-population-ageing_5k44ssnfdnr7-en
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Belgium: Enhancing the Cost Efficiency and Flexibility of the Health Sector to Adjust to Population Ageing
Stéphane Sorbe
Belgium has a good record in delivering accessible care, but adaptation to population ageing will be complicated by the fragmentation of responsibilities in the healthcare system and a strong reliance on government regulations. The organisation of the system could be rationalised by giving...
  N° 1065   25 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/italy-and-the-euro-area-crisis_5k44ssrpqdxq-en
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Italy and the Euro Area Crisis
Oliver Denk
Italy’s policy of fiscal consolidation and growth-friendly structural reforms has substantially improved its economic prospects, but the adverse sentiment that the country has faced in the sovereign bond market over the past years has deep roots. It reflects lingering anxieties over the euro...
  N° 1064   25 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/policy-implementation-in-italy_5k44sssdmgzs-en
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Policy Implementation in Italy
Paul O'Brien
OECD indicators of structural policy show that policy changes in Italy since 1998 should have improved the environment for entrepreneurship significantly, but in the same period its economic performance has deteriorated noticeably. This may be partly because there is a difference between policy...
  N° 1063   25 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/greening-growth-in-luxembourg_5k44t7j62qg1-en
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Greening Growth in Luxembourg
Nicola Brandt
With strong economic growth overall and an increasingly important role as a regional economic centre, Luxembourg is experiencing mounting environmental pressures. This is mainly a result of a growing population and a rapid increase in transport, which is dominated by the car, as the number...
  N° 1062   25 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-post-crisis-narrowing-of-international-imbalances_5k44t7j9sdtc-en
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The Post-crisis Narrowing of International Imbalances
Patrice Ollivaud, Cyrille Schwellnus
After peaking in the first half of 2008, international imbalances declined sharply during the global crisis of 2008-09, in part reflecting cyclical factors such as large contractions in domestic demand on the back of bursting housing bubbles in a number of deficit countries, as well as large...
  N° 1061   14 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/restructuring-welfare-spending-in-slovenia_5k44v50kwzxx-en
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Restructuring Welfare Spending in Slovenia
Rafal Kierzenkowski
Restoring fiscal sustainability is a major challenge in Slovenia. Yet, the performance in terms of expenditure control is poor and public expenditure on social spending increased briskly during the crisis, significantly more than on average across the OECD. Despite recent progress in reforming...
  N° 1060   14 août 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-economics-of-civil-justice_5k41w04ds6kf-en
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The Economics of Civil Justice
Giuliana Palumbo, Giulia Giupponi, Luca Nunziata, Juan S. Mora Sanguinetti
Combining existing information with a newly collected dataset, the paper develops indicators of the performance and the institutional characteristics of OECD judicial systems. It provides cross-country comparisons of measures of trial length, accessibility to justice services and predictability...
  N° 1059   14 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/banks-restructuring-and-smooth-deleveraging-of-the-private-sector-in-slovenia_5k44v5122gf0-en
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Banks' Restructuring and Smooth Deleveraging of the Private Sector in Slovenia
Olena Havrylchyk
Slovenia is facing the legacy of a boom-bust cycle that has been compounded by weak corporate governance of state-owned banks. The levels of non-performing loans and capital adequacy ratios compare poorly in international perspective and may deteriorate further, which could require significant...
  N° 1058   14 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/assessing-the-efficiency-of-welfare-spending-in-slovenia-with-data-envelopment-analysis_5k44v5373q0q-en
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Assessing the Efficiency of Welfare Spending in Slovenia with Data Envelopment Analysis
Matevz Hribernik, Rafal Kierzenkowski
This paper derives estimates of the efficiency of welfare spending in Slovenia and the other OECD countries from data envelopment analysis based on model specifications used in earlier OECD studies. Results suggest that Slovenia ranks about 25th among OECD countries for output efficiency: for a...
  N° 1057   06 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/policy-determinants-of-school-outcomes-under-model-uncertainty_5k452klln7tl-en
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Policy Determinants of School Outcomes Under Model Uncertainty
Thomas Laurent, Fabrice Murtin, Geoff Barnard, Dean Janse van Rensburg, Vijay Reddy, George Frempong, Lolita Winnaar
In this paper we assess the determinants of secondary school outcomes in South Africa. We use Bayesian Averaging Model techniques to account for uncertainty in the set of underlying factors that are chosen among a very large pool of explanatory variables in order to minimize the risk of omitted...
  N° 1056   06 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/improving-education-quality-in-south-africa_5k452klfn9ls-en
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Improving Education Quality in South Africa
Fabrice Murtin
South Africa has achieved remarkable progress in educational attainment relative to other emerging countries, but the quality of basic education for a large fraction of the Black African population is still very low. This study identifies several hurdles to the upgrading of basic education...
  N° 1055   06 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-90-public-debt-threshold_5k452kln1s6l-en
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The 90% Public Debt Threshold
Balázs Égert
This paper puts the original Reinhart-Rogoff dataset, made public by Herndon et al. (2013), to a formal econometric test to pin down debt thresholds endogenously. We show that the nonlinear relation from debt to growth is not very robust. Taken with a pinch of salt, our results suggest,...
  N° 1054   05 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/challenges-to-sustain-poland-s-growth-model_5k452kltcxxq-en
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Challenges to Sustain Poland's Growth Model
Balázs Égert, Rafal Kierzenkowski
Notwithstanding a very strong economic performance over the past decade or so, Poland’s per capita income is substantially lower in comparison with the United States and per capita income growth will be sharply slowing down over the coming decades under the scenario of gradual policy changes...
  N° 1053   27 mai 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/reforming-agriculture-and-promoting-japan-s-integration-in-the-world-economy_5k46957l0rf4-en
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Reforming Agriculture and Promoting Japan's Integration in the World Economy
Randall S. Jones, Shingo Kimura
The problems of Japanese agriculture – in particular low productivity and the prevalence of part-time farmers and small plots have been evident for the past 50 years. The high level and distortionary nature of agriculture support imposes burdens on consumers and taxpayers, undermines the...
  N° 1052   27 mai 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/inequality-and-poverty-in-the-united-states_5k46957cwv8q-en
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Inequality and Poverty in the United States
Oliver Denk, Robert P. Hagemann, Patrick Lenain, Valentin Somma
Income inequality and relative poverty in the United States are among the highest in the OECD and have substantially increased over the past decades. These developments have been associated with a number of other worrying statistics, including low intergenerational social mobility and weak real...
  N° 1051   29 mai 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/fiscal-federalism-and-its-impact-on-economic-activity-public-investment-and-the-performance-of-educational-systems_5k4695840w7b-en
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Fiscal Federalism and its Impact on Economic Activity, Public Investment and the Performance of Educational Systems
Hansjörg Blöchliger, Balázs Égert, Kaja Bonesmo Fredriksen
Intergovernmental fiscal frameworks usually reflect fundamental societal choices and history and are not foremost geared towards achieving economic policy objectives. Yet, like most institutional arrangements, fiscal relations affect the behaviour of firms, households and governments and...
  N° 1050   23 mai 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/restoring-japan-s-fiscal-sustainability_5k46cvtkbf33-en
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Restoring Japan's Fiscal Sustainability
Randall S. Jones, Satoshi Urasawa
With gross government debt surpassing 200% of GDP, Japan’s fiscal situation is in uncharted territory. In addition to robust nominal GDP growth, correcting two decades of budget deficits requires a large and sustained fiscal consolidation based on a detailed and credible multi-year plan that...
  N° 1049   21 mai 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/measuring-total-factor-productivity-at-the-firm-level-using-oecd-orbis_5k46dsb25ls6-en
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Measuring Total Factor Productivity at the Firm Level using OECD-ORBIS
Peter N. Gal
Recent OECD research has utilised harmonised cross-country firm level data to explore the contribution of public policies to cross-country differences in productivity, innovation and resource allocation. This paper describes the steps taken to and the trade-offs involved in constructing...
  N° 1048   14 juin 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/a-projection-method-for-public-health-and-long-term-care-expenditures_5k44v53w5w47-en
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A Projection Method for Public Health and Long-Term Care Expenditures
Christine de la Maisonneuve, Joaquim Oliveira Martins
This paper proposes a new set of public health and long-term care expenditure projections until 2060, seven years after a first set of projections was published by the OECD. It disentangles health from longterm care expenditure, as well as the demographic from the non-demographic drivers, and...
  N° 1047   22 mai 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/r-d-patenting-and-growth_5k46h2rfb4f3-en
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R&D, Patenting and Growth
Ben Westmore
This paper uses panel regression techniques to assess the policy determinants of private sector innovative activity – proxied by R&D expenditure and the number of new patents – across 19 OECD countries. The relationship between innovation indicators and multifactor productivity (MFP) growth is...
  N° 1046   24 mai 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/knowledge-based-capital-innovation-and-resource-allocation_5k46bj546kzs-en
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Knowledge-Based Capital, Innovation and Resource Allocation
Dan Andrews, Chiara Criscuolo
Investment in knowledge-based capital (KBC) – assets that lack physical embodiment, such as computerised information, innovative property and economic competencies – has been rising significantly. This has implications for innovation and productivity growth and requires new thinking on policy....
  N° 1045   17 avr 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/reforms-for-a-cleaner-healthier-environment-in-china_5k480c2dh6kf-en
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Reforms for a Cleaner, Healthier Environment in China
Sam Hill
China’s exceptional economic expansion has led to rising energy demand and pollution as well as other environmental pressures. Strong efforts by the government have moderated emissions of some types of air and water pollution from high levels but others, including greenhouse gas emissions,...
  N° 1044   16 avr 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/making-the-tax-system-less-distortive-in-switzerland_5k480c2rt1d3-en
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Making the Tax System Less Distortive in Switzerland
Andrés Fuentes
The tax burden in Switzerland is low in international comparison, largely reflecting the substantial non-tax compulsory contributions towards the health and pension systems which are managed by private institutions. Taxation of personal income and labour earnings is relatively high, whereas the...
  N° 1043   11 avr 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/the-determinants-of-informality-in-mexico-s-states_5k483jrvnjq2-en
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The Determinants of Informality in Mexico's States
Sean Dougherty, Octavio Escobar
Informality has important implications for productivity, economic growth, and the inequality of income. In recent years, the extent of informal employment has increased in many of Mexico's states, though highly heterogeneously. The substantial differences across states in terms of informal...
  N° 1042   11 avr 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/legal-reform-contract-enforcement-and-firm-size-in-mexico_5k483jscn8s8-en
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Legal Reform, Contract Enforcement and Firm Size in Mexico
Sean Dougherty
Legal systems provide the basic institutions for firms and markets to operate. Their quality can have important consequences on the size distribution of firms, who rely on them for contract enforcement. This paper uses the variation in legal system quality across states in Mexico to examine the...
  N° 1041   05 avr 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/improving-the-economic-situation-of-young-people-in-france_5k4840dqcbjc-en
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Improving the Economic Situation of Young People in France
Hervé Boulhol
The economic situation of young people is unsatisfactory. Educational inequalities have been widening for over a decade, due to a sharp decline in the results of the most highly disadvantaged students. The unemployment rate for the 20-24 age bracket has not dropped below 16% for nearly 30...
  N° 1040   27 mars 2013 Cliquez pour accéder: 
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  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/economics/improving-employment-prospects-for-young-workers-in-spain_5k487n7hg08s-en
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Improving Employment Prospects for Young Workers in Spain
Anita Wölfl
The unemployment rate among young people has reached painfully high levels, in particular among those young people with low levels of education. There are two crucial policy priorities to improve employment prospects for youth in Spain. First, in the very short term, there is need for quick...
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