OECD Economic Surveys: Germany

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1999-0251 (en ligne)
1995-3194 (imprimé)
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OECD’s periodic surveys of the German economy. Each edition surveys the major challenges faced by the country, evaluates the short-term outlook, and makes specific policy recommendations. Special chapters take a more detailed look at specific challenges. Extensive statistical information is included in charts and graphs.

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OECD Economic Surveys: Germany 2016

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05 avr 2016
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9789264254794 (EPUB) ; 9789264254725 (PDF) ;9789264254718(imprimé)

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This 2016 OECD Economic Survey of the Germany examines recent economic developments, policies and prospects. The special chapters cover: Boosting investment performance and Raising well-being in Germany’s aging society.

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  • Basic statistics of Germany, 2014

    This Survey is published on the responsibility of the Economic and Development Review Committee of the OECD, which is charged with the examination of the economic situation of member countries.The economic situation and policies of Germany were reviewed by the Committee on 29 February 2016. The draft report was then revised in the light of the discussions and given final approval as the agreed report of the whole Committee on 15 March 2016.The Secretariat’s draft report was prepared for the Committee by Andrés Fuentes Hutfilter, Andreas Kappeler, Naomitsu Yashiro and by Dorothee Schneider, who was seconded from the German Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy, under the supervision of Andreas Wörgötter. Eun Jung Kim and Giovanni Maria Semeraro provided research assistance. Heloise Wickramanayake formatted and produced the layout. The previous Survey of Germany was issued in May 2014.Information about the latest as well as previous Surveys and more information about how Surveys are prepared is available at www.oecd.org/eco/surveys.

  • Executive summary

    The economy has steadily recovered from the 2008 global crisis and, thanks to past reforms, the labour market has proved strong. Labour productivity growth hasweakened and productivity is low in services. Germany has high material living standards, low income inequality and scores well in most dimensions of well-being. Despite substantial progress, there still are gaps in childcare and full-day schooling. Disincentives to work full-time in the tax system also contribute to low earnings of women as many work part-time. In recent years many low-income households have not benefited from economic growth and investment.

  • Assessment and recommendations

    Economic growth has rebounded quickly since the global financial crisis of 2009. A competitive manufacturing sector and euro depreciation have driven strong export performance. Reflecting past labour market reforms, the unemployment rate has continued to fall and is now the lowest in the European Union (, Panels A, B and C). Private household demand has risen on the back of a robust labour market and the recent introduction of a minimum wage, which significantly increased the benefits of working at the lower end of the labour market. Decisive action by the European Central Bank (ECB) provided monetary support and helped to stabilise the euro area. Germany’s status as a safe haven for financial investors has also supported activity while euro area membership prevented appreciation vis-à-vis most key European trading partners. An effective fiscal rule resulting in a solid fiscal position and overall competition-friendly product market regulation are key factors which sustain a high level of productivity and confidence.

  • Progress in structural reform

    This annex summaries key recommendations made in previous Surveys and main actions taken since the OECD Economic Survey on Germany published in May 2014.

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  • Ouvrir / Fermer Cacher / Voir les résumés Thematic chapters

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    • Boosting investment performance

      Non-residential investment has fallen over the past 20 years as a share of GDP and is now lower than in several other high-income OECD countries. Business investment growth has been weak since the outbreak of the global financial and economic crisis. Government investment has been low, especially at municipal level. Investment in knowledge-based capital (KBC), which is closely related to long-term productivity performance, has been subdued. Weak growth prospects in the euro area have weighed on business investment and an increasing share of firms invests in distant, more dynamic markets. Policies that strengthen stability and growth prospects in the euro area would raise the attractiveness of Germany as a location to invest, notably steps to strengthen the single market and cross-border infrastructure, and complete the banking union. Steps to liberalise regulation of services, in particular knowledge-intensive professional services, would raise investment and productivity. Policies that encourage the reallocation of resources would also increase investment in KBC. Poor municipalities invest relatively little and there is scope to lower the cost of public investment projects. Better use of e-governance and more performance-oriented budgeting could improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public investment.

    • Raising well-being in Germany's ageing society

      Population ageing is setting in earlier in Germany than in most other OECD economies and will be marked. It could lead to a substantial decline in employment, weighing on GDP per capita, and will raise demand for health-related public services. Germany has already implemented far-reaching reforms to mitigate the implications of ageing for per capita income, well-being and the sustainability of public finances. Nonetheless, continued efforts are needed to help older workers to improve their work-life balance and adjust their working hours to their ability and desire to work. Moreover, stressful working conditions and unhealthy lifestyles contribute to poor self-reported health and reduce the ability and willingness to work at higher age. There is scope to promote life-long learning. As the generosity of the public pension system will diminish, the contribution of private pensions to ensure pension adequacy needs to be strengthened.

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