Development Co-operation Report

2074-7721 (en ligne)
2074-773X (imprimé)
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The annual report of the Chairman of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC). It provides detailed statistics on and analysis of each member’s foreign aid programmes (offical development assistance - ODA) as well as an overview of trends and issues currently being discussed in the development community.

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Development Co-operation Report 2016

Development Co-operation Report 2016

The Sustainable Development Goals as Business Opportunities You or your institution have access to this content

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18 jui 2016
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9789264254497 (PDF) ; 9789264259447 (EPUB) ;9789264222755(imprimé)

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The face of development has changed, with diverse stakeholders involved – and implicated – in what are more and more seen as global and interlinked concerns. At the same time, there is an urgent need to mobilise unprecedented resources to achieve the ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The private sector can be a powerful promotor of sustainable development. Companies provide jobs, infrastructure, innovation and social services, among others. Increasingly, investments in developing countries – even in the least developed countries – are seen as business opportunities, despite the risks involved. The public sector can leverage the private sector contribution, helping to manage risk and providing insights into effective policy and practice. Yet in order to set the right incentives, a better understanding is needed of the enabling factors, as well as the constraints, for businesses and investors interested in addressing sustainable development challenges.
The Development Co-operation Report 2016 explores the potential and challenges of investing in developing countries, in particular through social impact investment, blended finance and foreign direct investment. The report provides guidance on responsible business conduct and outlines the challenges in mobilising and measuring private finance to achieve the SDGs.  Throughout the report, practical examples illustrate how business is already promoting sustainable development and inclusive growth in developing countries. Part II of the report showcases the profiles and performance of development co-operation providers, and presents DAC statistics on official and private resource flows.  

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  • Preface

    I am happy to encourage a wide readership for this volume, but I must note at the outset that its very title conveys ambiguity. Describing the new Sustainable Development Goals as business opportunities for those pursuing profit could be interpreted by some readers as encouraging the exploitation of the world’s most severe problems for personal gain. No one involved in this project intends to encourage exploitation; but this ambiguity is inherent, not only in the title of this volume, but more widely in the growing enthusiasm for private sector solutions to grave public problems. This ambiguity is worth addressing head on.

  • Foreword

    In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the universal 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). These goals spell out the challenges we need to ensure the sustainability of our planet, and to ensure prosperity and equity for all. To achieve these goals, the participation of the private sector is essential.

  • Acronyms and abbreviations
  • Editorial

    In 2015, when world leaders adopted the Sustainable Development Goals, we committed to the most inclusive, diverse and comprehensive and ambitious development agenda ever. By doing so, we acknowledged that development challenges are global challenges. The new global goals represent a universal agenda, applying equally to all countries in the world.

  • Executive summary

    The year 2015 was a decisive year for sustainable development. With the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the world now has the most ambitious, diverse and universal development roadmap in history. The Addis Ababa Action Agenda stressed the importance of using public investment instruments and vehicles to leverage the unprecedented levels of private finance required to fund this agenda. And the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21) in Paris confirmed the challenges of managing climate change – and an unprecedented global commitment to do so.

  • Infographic. Investing in people, the planet and prosperity: Five pathways
  • Overview: Putting sustainable development at the core of business models

    Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require funding and co-operation on an unprecedented scale, with the private sector holding a pivotal position. This chapter asks how international co-operation can help to put sustainable development at the core of business models. It looks at why these efforts must focus on the quality as well as the quantity of private sector contributions, responding to the challenges laid out at the beginning of the chapter: making sustainability business as usual; creating conditions for good investment; building global change from the bottom up; ensuring credibility, accountability and transparency; and creating new multi-stakeholder partnerships. The chapter concludes with a set of key recommendations.Challenge piece by Amina Mohammed, former Special Advisor to the UN Secretary-General on Post-2015 Development Planning. Opinion pieces by Jim Balsillie, Centre for International Governance Innovation; Olivier De Schutter, International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems; Louise Kantrow, International Chamber of Commerce.

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  • Ouvrir / Fermer Cacher / Voir les résumés The SDGs as sustainable business opportunities and five approaches to make it happen

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    • Trends in foreign direct investment and their implications for development

      Foreign direct investment can play an important role in financing development, with multinational enterprises also providing employment, technology transfer and access to international markets. Between 2005 and 2014, foreign direct investment flows to non-OECD countries more than doubled in absolute terms since 2012, these countries receive more than 50% of the global total, compared to 35% in 2005. Recently, however, some types of international investment in emerging and developing economies have started to decline. There are important warning signs that these investment flows could experience a sharp slowdown over the coming years (or could even reverse in some cases). This chapter examines these trends, the main factors shaping them and their implications.Challenge piece by Karl P. Sauvant, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment. Opinion pieces by Andrew Chipwende, Industrial Development Corporation, Zambia; Shaun Donnelly, United States Council for International Business; James Zhan, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

    • Blending public and private funds for sustainable development

      Blended finance offers huge, largely untapped potential for public, philanthropic and private actors to work together to dramatically improve the scale of investment in developing countries. Its potential lies in its ability to remove many bottlenecks that prevent private investors from targeting the sectors and countries that urgently need additional investment. To accelerate social and economic progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals, blended finance needs to be scaled up, but in a systematic way that avoids certain risks. This chapter outlines how to underpin international development efforts using blended finance solutions that have the potential to transform economies, societies and lives, concluding with a set of key recommendations.Challenge piece by Gavin E.R. Wilson, International Finance Corporation Asset Management Company. Opinion pieces by Jay Collins, Citigroup; LI Yong, United Nations Industrial Development Organization.

    • Measuring private finance mobilised for sustainable development

      The OECD is working on ways to monitor and measure private resources mobilised through public sector interventions. This is of great importance in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals: improving the tracking of these resources will increase transparency while also encouraging their use to mobilise further resources. This chapter provides an overview of the work underway and outlines some of the methodological challenges involved. It also presents the findings of a recent survey that focused on private sector finance mobilised through guarantees, syndicated loans and shares in collective investment vehicles between 2012 and 2014. It concludes with a set of key recommendations.Challenge piece by Jeff Chelsky, World Bank. Opinion pieces by Pierre Jacquet, Global Development Network; Philippe Orliange, Agence Française de Développement.

    • Investing for social impact in developing countries

      Social impact investors seek social and environmental impact from their investments, in addition to financial returns. This chapter discusses the potential of social impact investment for developing countries, highlighting several examples to demonstrate how it works in practice. It examines the challenges, including assessing whether interventions have achieved their intended impact and expanding the evidence base. The public sector can promote social impact investment, for example by providing risk capital to enable the private sector to offer affordable, accessible, quality products and services to the poorest populations. The chapter makes recommendations for increasing the reach and the scale of social impact investment.Challenge piece by Julie Sunderland, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Opinion pieces by Manuel Sager, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation; Sonal Shah, Beeck Center for Social Impact & Innovation, Georgetown University.

    • Promoting sustainable development through responsible business conduct

      Investment can help raise standards of living through job creation, skills and technology development, and distribution of wealth. Achieving these impacts, however, depends on the quality of the investment as much as the quantity. Irresponsible business practices not only erode the investment and business environment; they can result in economic loss, environmental degradation, poor labour conditions, and in the most serious of cases, injury and loss of human life. Responsible business conduct principles and standards emphasise the integration of environmental and social concerns within core business operations. This chapter discusses how responsible business conduct can directly contribute to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, while also being good for business. It examines the main global guidelines, principles and standards, as well as the role of governments.Challenge piece by Marco Lambertini, WWF International. Opinion pieces by Peter Bakker, World Business Council for Sustainable Development; Sharan Burrow, International Trade Union Confederation.

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  • Ouvrir / Fermer Cacher / Voir les résumés Profiles of development co-operation providers

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    • Engaging the private sector in development co-operation: Learning from peers

      Official development assistance is increasingly being delivered with and through the private sector. Valuable lessons are emerging from these experiences. The OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) has recently launched a survey and peer learning exercise with its member countries to tap into these experiences and identify good practice. Many insights are emerging already from the survey and the first three reviews – of Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden. These include the value of private sector partnerships beyond their financial contribution, and the critical importance of investing in in-house capacities and expertise to successfully develop and manage partnerships with the private sector. The final synthesis report will identify best practices and lessons to help all DAC members refine their engagements with the private sector, including appropriate tools and partnerships to leverage private sector resources and enhance development impact; and measuring and evaluating results, impact, additionality and the catalytic effect of private sector engagements.

    • Development Assistance Committee members' ODA performance in 2014 and 2015

      According to preliminary data, in 2015 net official development assistance (ODA) flows from member countries of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) rose by 6.9% in real terms from 2014 to reach USD 131.6 billion, representing 0.30% of gross national income (GNI). In real terms, this represents the highest level of net ODA ever achieved. Most of the increase was due to the reporting of in-donor refugee costs, but if these costs are excluded, net ODA still rose by 1.7% in real terms. It is encouraging that ODA continues to remain high and stable.

    • Australia

      Australia’s 2014 aid policy, Australian Aid: Promoting Prosperity, Reducing Poverty, Enhancing Stability, elevates private sector development to one of two pillars of the aid programme. In 2015, the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) published a ministerial statement on engaging the private sector in aid and development, Creating Shared Value Through Partnership, which focuses on how Australia should work with the business sector ranging from dialogue to financial partnerships. The Strategy for Australia’s Aid Investments in Private Sector Development sets out three main areas of focus: building better enabling environments for business, supporting growth in specific markets and maximising the development impact of individual businesses. A key change at DFAT is that it aims to engage the private sector actively in all aspects of aid investment decision making.

    • Austria

      Austria uses its official development assistance to catalyse private investment for sustainable development, in line with the strong focus it places on private sector development in its three-year programmes for development co-operation and its Private Sector and Development Guidelines (2010). Austria focuses on private sector development to improve the business‑enabling environment in developing countries and to strengthen the market position of small and medium enterprises in partner countries while also partnering with the Austrian/EU private sector. By means of private sector engagement, Austrian Development Co-operation (ADC) intends to create income, strengthen institutions and enhance availability of public goods in partner countries. Moreover, many private sector projects aim at improving social and environmental standards along the international value/supply chain of the European company involved.

    • Belgium

      Belgium has been reinforcing its approach to leveraging official development assistance (ODA) and other instruments to increase private investment for development – particularly for the local private sector in developing countries. A number of official instruments have been developed. The Belgian Investment Company for Developing Countries (BIO), the national development finance institution, is the main instrument and focuses on supporting local private sector companies.

    • Canada

      The government of Canada is committed to strengthening its engagement with private sector actors as partners to help reduce global poverty. Canada is placing a stronger emphasis on sustainable economic growth and is developing new and potentially innovative private sector approaches and partnerships. Canada’s approach to partnering with the private sector in development highlights the importance of helping developing country partners create the conditions for strong and sustainable private sector-led growth through its Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy and by leveraging local, Canadian, international and multinational private sector actors of all sizes to promote private sector-led growth in developing countries.

    • Czech Republic

      The Czech Republic considers that private business activities, investments and innovations are major drivers of productivity, inclusive economic growth and job creation. For this reason, the Czech Republic partners with the private sector to deliver its development co-operation and make efforts to create better conditions for private sector engagement in and beyond development co-operation.

    • Denmark

      Denmark’s support to private sector development has increased steadily over the past 15 years, with a focus on value chain development (particularly for agribusiness), small and medium enterprise development and finance, and innovative financing models based on public-private partnerships. Denmark’s private sector development strategy aims at creating an enabling environment for private sector development in developing countries. Denmark is looking to develop new instruments for catalysing private financing, matching development challenges with Danish competencies. A key mechanism for co‑ordination with business and institutional investors is the joint Danish Investment Fund for Developing Countries (IFU) and the Development Committee of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which meets regularly to discuss synergies.

    • European Union institutions

      Working with and through the private sector in development co-operation is a relatively new way of working for the European Commission, which issued its communication A stronger role for the private sector in achieving inclusive and sustainable growth in developing countries in 2014. The objectives of the EU’s support for private sector development and its engagement with both the local and international private sectors are: creating a business environment conducive to private sector initiative; mainstreaming private sector development; engaging the private sector in EU development co‑operation with a view to achieving inclusive and sustainable growth; and catalysing private sector engagement for development by promoting responsible business practices through EU development policy.

    • Finland

      Finland leverages its ODA to support private sector investment in developing countries with a strong emphasis on aid for trade. Its Aid for Trade Action Plan 2012-15 aims to create decent jobs for all with four goals: 1) a sound business-enabling environment that promotes private sector activity; 2) developing countries benefit from international trade and investment; 3) economic activity is based on the sustainable use of natural resources; and 4) people’s skills and knowledge produce innovative economic activity.

    • France

      France gives high priority to mobilising resources additional to official development assistance (ODA), including private investment for development and steady and predictable innovative financing. The Agence Française de Développement’s (AFD group) strategy towards the private sector aims at supporting the growth of sound and sustainable private companies and businesses which are central stakeholders for economic development, job creation and income for private individuals in the countries where it operates. Activities aim to support: 1) better business-enabling environments for the private sector; 2) the emergence of intermediary public or private business services for small and medium enterprises (SMEs); and 3) the direct development of SMEs, notably through a facilitated access to finance.

    • Germany

      Germany uses public development finance to leverage engagement and investment from the private sector for sustainable development, seeking to build synergies among the various German stakeholders at home and in partner countries (OECD, 2015). It mobilises a wide range of instruments as part of its financial co-operation – from concessional loans to risk capital provision and guarantees – which are extended by KfW, Germany’s development finance institution. In its financial (KfW) and technical co-operation (GIZ) activities, Germany has also developed some innovative approaches for engaging with developing country, German and international companies. For example, Germany has set up a Trade Policy and Trade Promotion Fund that aims at building the capacities of partner country decision makers and non-state actors to develop and implement coherent and comprehensive strategies for the promotion of trade and investment. In addition, the fund promotes the cross‑linkage of state and non-state stakeholders so that they can jointly develop and implement trade strategies.

    • Greece

      Greece emphasises the positive role that can be played by the private sector in promoting sustainable development and reducing poverty through job creation. It sees the public and private sectors playing complementary roles with business adding value to development goals through corporate social responsibility. Given the severe fiscal constraints that Greece faces and its commitment to Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, Greece is looking into the possibility of working with or through the private sector in order to promote sustainable development.

    • Iceland

      In 2015, Iceland delivered USD 39 million in net ODA (preliminary data), which represented 0.24% of its gross national income (GNI) and an 11.3% increase in real terms from 2014. Iceland is committed to achieving 0.7% ODA/GNI, and this commitment has been accompanied by an increase in official development assistance (ODA), both in terms of volume and as a share of GNI since 2012. Iceland is the 17th largest Development Assistance Committee (DAC) provider in terms of ODA as a percentage of GNI, and the 28th in terms of volume. Iceland untied 100% of its ODA (excluding administrative costs and in-donor refugee costs) in 2014, compared to the DAC average of 80.6%. Its ODA was also fully untied in 2013 and 2012. The grant element of total ODA was 100% in 2014. At present, data on other official flows, private grants (funds raised by non‑governmental organisations and foundations) and private flows at market terms from Iceland to developing countries are not available.

    • Ireland

      Ireland’s policy for international development – One World One Future – identifies trade and economic growth as a priority area for action. This includes developing an Inclusive Economic Growth policy and committing to the continued implementation of the Africa Strategy for the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (September 2011).

    • Italy

      Italy’s overarching private sector strategy is contained in the Three Year Guidelines 2014-16, which identify the private sector as a key strategic sector, with an emphasis on the creation of territorial partnerships and networks of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), women’s entrepreneurship, market access and international trade. Recent changes in legislation (Law 125/2014) foresee new and specific provisions in favour of the private sector, considered both as an actor and as an enabler of development, with a specific, catalytic role for a national development bank, Cassa Depositi e Prestiti. In the future, Italian Cooperation believes it will be useful to develop innovative instruments and to find new ways of engaging Italian SMEs more effectively in development co-operation.

    • Japan

      The Development Cooperation Charter (February 2015) states that the government of Japan will promote development co‑operation through public-private partnerships using the resources of the private sector and promoting private-led growth, in order to support the economic development of developing countries, which will also contribute to robust growth of the Japanese economy. Private flows to developing countries consistently remain the greatest source of financing from Japan.

    • Korea

      Korea’s second mid-term ODA Policy (2016-20) focuses on diversifying partnerships with the private sector and contributing to an inclusive business model. Building on its own experience with public-private partnership (PPP) and Korean businesses’ corporate social responsibility in developing countries, Korea is stepping up efforts to translate innovative ideas and partnerships into business opportunities to generate income and create markets in developing countries. Korea is engaged in private sector development mainly through the overseas loans and investment programmes of the Export-Import Bank of Korea (Eximbank) – the official export credit agency. Its mission is to develop the Korean economy by promoting international economic co-operation. Eximbank’s primary services include export loans, trade finance and guarantee programmes.

    • Luxembourg

      Strengthening the local private sector in developing countries is one of the main objectives of Luxembourg’s Action Plan for Development Effectiveness 2014-16. In addition, Luxembourg strongly supports the inclusive finance sector. For example, the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs (MFEA) is a founding member of the microfinance labelling agency LuxFlag, which has contributed to professionalise the inclusive finance sector in Luxembourg and beyond. Together with actors of the financial sector, the MFEA has initiated the Luxembourg Microfinance and Development Fund (LMDF), which facilitates access to responsible finance in developing countries.

    • Netherlands

      Private sector development has become a key component of Dutch development co-operation since 2010, reflecting the priority that the government places on economic development in its development policy. The Netherlands has created new public-private partnerships (PPPs) to promote sustainable entrepreneurship and food security and facilities to support Dutch small and medium enterprise (SME) investments in emerging markets, such as the Infrastructure Development Fund (IDF) and the Credit Fund for Micro and Small Enterprises (MASSIF). The facility for development-relevant export transactions was also transformed into a grant facility to support developing countries in the development, implementation, operation and maintenance of public infrastructure. Furthermore, the Dutch Good Growth Fund was launched in 2014: a revolving fund which provides funding for inclusive growth in 68 least developed countries (LDCs) and middle-income countries (MICs) generated by Dutch and/or local SMEs. The government also seeks to spur innovation in private finance as shown, for example, by its support to the Health Insurance Fund of the Pharmaccess Foundation, which subsidises insurance premiums for low-income groups.

    • New Zealand

      The New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015-2019 outlines a significant change in the way it will address private sector development, which is becoming a mainstream issue across all of its development work. The primary objectives of New Zealand’s private sector engagement strategy are: 1) to support widespread, inclusive development in partner countries through increased incomes, employment and revenue; 2) to drive innovation, efficiency and sustainability in development activities; and 3) to leverage alternative sources of funding for development.

    • Norway

      Norway has been placing greater emphasis on private sector development in recent years and continues to strengthen its approach. This growing commitment is reflected in the government’s new white paper Working together: Private sector development in Norwegian development cooperation (Meld. St. 35, 2014-15). The main focus of this paper was to identify how Norway’s private sector development co-operation should be organised and which measures the government will pursue to use development assistance strategically to mobilise private investments that promote development, job creation and poverty reduction.

    • Poland

      In 2015, Poland provided USD 442 million in net ODA (preliminary data), which represented 0.10% of gross national income (GNI) and a 16.8% increase in real terms from 2014. Poland is committed to attain the 0.33% ODA/GNI ratio when political and financial conditions permit, and will strive to achieve it by 2030, as agreed at the EU level in 2015. Poland is the 28th (last) largest Development Assistance Committee (DAC) provider in terms of official development assistance (ODA) as a percentage of GNI, and the 20th largest by volume. Poland’s share of untied ODA (excluding administrative costs and in‑donor refugee costs) was 10.6% in 2014 (down from 62.7% in 2013), compared to the DAC average of 80.6%. The grant element of total ODA was 90% in 2014. At present, data on other official flows, private grants (funds raised by non‑governmental organisations and foundations) and private flows at market terms from Poland to developing countries are not available.

    • Portugal

      Portugal’s Strategic Concept 2014-2020 for its development co-operation places a greater emphasis on private sector development, which has gained in importance in the development programme since 2011. Portugal aims to use its official development assistance (ODA) in a more catalytic manner, notably by increasing its support for private sector development in partner countries through a mutual benefits approach – allowing partner countries to benefit from resources, knowledge and technology sharing while also giving Portuguese companies greater access to foreign markets. The new platform for Partnership in Development will facilitate the involvement of the Portuguese private sector in development co-operation.

    • Slovak Republic

      In 2015, the Slovak Republic provided USD 86 million in net ODA (preliminary data), which represented 0.1% of gross national income (GNI) and a 23.3% increase in real terms from 2014. The Slovak Republic is committed to gradually meeting the official development assistance (ODA) target of 0.33% adopted at the EU level, when the economy recovers. The Slovak Republic is the 27th largest Development Assistance Committee (DAC) provider in terms of ODA as a percentage of GNI, and 26th by volume.

    • Slovenia

      In 2015, Slovenia provided USD 62 million in net ODA (preliminary data), which represented 0.15% of gross national income (GNI) and a 21.1% increase in real terms from 2014, due in part to the overall scaling up of its aid, but also to higher in-donor refugee costs. Slovenia is the 22nd largest provider of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) in terms of official development assistance (ODA) as a percentage of GNI, and the 27th in terms of volume. It shall strive to increase its ODA/GNI to 0.33% by 2030 as agreed at the EU level. The grant element of total ODA was 100% in 2014. At present, data on other official flows, private grants (funds raised by non-governmental organisations and foundations) and private flows at market terms from Slovenia to developing countries are not available.

    • Spain

      Spain’s strategy on economic growth recommends that Spanish Co-operation work with the private sector. The 2016 DAC Peer Review of Spain found that it has taken the first steps in its commitment to engaging the private sector in development co-operation. Spain has also developed new tools to engage the private sector in development co-operation. Tools include public-private partnerships, an innovation fund and a Development Promotion Fund (FONPRODE). To integrate the private sector more fully into the development co-operation system, Spain has recently set up a working group – which brings together representatives from ministries, the Spanish development co-operation agency (AECID) and civil society – as well as a business unit within the AECID. Also COFIDES, a joint state and privately owned company, provides medium and long‑term financial support for viable private direct investment projects in foreign countries, where there is a Spanish interest. COFIDES provides technical support to FONPRODE for the financial management of its reimbursable funds and at the same time is in charge of the funds that promote foreign investment with official support.

    • Sweden

      Sweden has long-standing experience of working with and through the private sector with a strong emphasis on private sector development in developing countries. It sees partnering with the private sector as a cross-cutting issue which can help achieve the strategic goals of Swedish development co-operation.

    • Switzerland

      Switzerland gives high priority to private sector development and engagement. The objective is to promote the private sector in its partner countries through better framework conditions, a better enabling environment for investment and improved access to finance.

    • United Kingdom

      The United Kingdom has been strengthening its focus on boosting wealth creation and using official development assistance (ODA) to maximise the development impact of public and private financial flows. The Department for International Development (DFID) is scaling up investment in this area, from GBP 614 million on wealth creation in 2012/13 to a planned spend of GBP 1.8 billion in 2015/16.

    • United States

      The United States government has sharpened the focus of development assistance to achieve sustainable and transformational development outcomes by leveraging increased private capital flows; diversifying private sector and non‑governmental partners; and investing more in science, technology and innovation.

    • Providers of development co-operation beyond the DAC: Trends and profiles

      This section presents information on the volume and key features of the development co-operation provided by countries that are not members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC). Estimated development co-operation flows by 29 providers beyond the DAC reached USD 33 billion in 2014, compared to USD 24 billion in 2013. The section includes the 19 providers who report to the OECD on their development co-operation programmes, as well as 10 other providers that are priority partners for the DAC. For these latter countries, the OECD estimates the volume of their programme based on official government reports, complemented by web-based research (mainly on contributions to multilateral organisations). The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the only private funding entity currently reporting to the OECD, is also included in this section.

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    • Technical notes on definitions and measurement

      The coverage of the data presented in the Development Co-operation Report has changed in recent years.

    • Methodological notes on the Profiles of Development Assistance Committee members

      General point: unless otherwise stated, and with the exception of data on official development assistance (ODA) allocation by sector, and ODA supporting gender equality and environment objectives (whose figures refer to commitments), all figures in the profiles refer to gross bilateral disbursements. The term DAC country average refers to weighted averages of Development Assistance Committee (DAC) countries for the specific allocation. Allocations by the European Union institutions are excluded from this calculation. All of the data presented in the profiles are publicly available at:

    • Glossary
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