Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries

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Frequency :
Annuel
ISSN :
1999-1169 (en ligne)
ISSN :
1563-0463 (imprimé)
DOI :
10.1787/19991169
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OECD’s annual report on agricultural policies in OECD countries details the latest data on support to agriculture in each country and examines issues related to agricultural support and policy. The report is presented in alternating forms each year: the more detailed and analytical Monitoring and Evaluation report and the statistics only At a Glance report.

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Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries 2010

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Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries 2010

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Auteur(s):
OCDE
Date de publication :
01 jui 2010
Pages :
128
ISBN :
9789264083806 (PDF) ; 9789264083790 (imprimé)
DOI :
10.1787/agr_oecd-2010-en

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This report is a unique source of up-to date estimates of support to agriculture. It provides an overview of agricultural support in the OECD areas, complemented by individual chapters on the development of support in all OECD countries. Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries: At a Glance is published every other year, alternating with the longer report, Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries: Monitoring and Evaluation. This book includes StatLinks, URLs under graphs and tables linking Excel® files with the underlying data.

This 2010 edition finds that in 2009, support to farmers in OECD countries accounted for 22% of the farmers’ gross receipts (%PSE). This was slightly up from 21% in 2008, and marks a return to the level shown in 2007. This is the first increase in support levels in five years, after a steady decline that began in 2004. Higher commodity prices in 2007 and 2008 were behind falls in the measured support for those years, but in 2009 these prices returned to the same level as in 2007. 

Despite a long-term reduction in both the level of support and the share of the most distorting forms of support, the latter still dominates in the majority of OECD countries. Some countries have taken clear steps towards reducing the level of support and/or implementing more decoupled support, while others have lagged behind. In some countries, support is becoming increasingly conditional on famers following specified production practices as part of their government’s pursuit of broader policy objectives. 

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    List of Acronyms
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    Executive Summary
    In 2009, support to producers in OECD countries was estimated at USD 253 billion or EUR 182 billion, as measured by the Producer Support Estimate (PSE). This is equivalent to 22% of aggregate gross farm receipts (%PSE), slightly up from 21% in 2008, and back to the 2007 level. This is the first increase in the support level after a steady decline since 2004. Higher commodity prices in 2007 and 2008 were behind falls in the measured support in those years, and return to 2007-level prices reversed this trend for 2009.
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    Evaluation of Support and Policy Developments
    This chapter provides an overview of developments in agricultural support in OECD countries. It first sets out the general macroeconomic and market context in which agricultural policies operated. Recent major changes and new initiatives in agricultural policies in OECD countries are highlighted. Estimated support is evaluated in terms of developments in its level and composition. Finally, some conclusions are drawn about the progress in agricultural reform being made in OECD countries.
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      Australia
      The main policy development in 2009 was the implementation of Caring for our Country, a suite of programmes which funds environmental management of Australia’s natural resources. It supports communities, farmers and other land managers to protect Australia’s natural environment and sustainably produce food and fibre. Caring for our Country is replacing or incorporating the National Heritage Trust programmes including Landcare, Bushcare and Rivercare.
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      Canada
      Payments to producers from the AgriStability programme increased in response to a number of different factors which include falling world prices, higher expenses and lower yields in some regions. Several new disaster payments were put in place under the AgriRecovery programme, aiding livestock producers in western Canada and potato producers in Quebec. The new Canadian Agricultural Loans Act (CALA) programme replaces the Farm Improvement and Marketing Co-operative Loans Act (FIMCLA) and provides enhanced eligibility for loan guarantees to producers and agricultural co-operatives. The Tobacco Transition Program provides funding of CAD 1.05 per pound of quota to producers wishing to exit the industry.
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      European Union
      The main policy developments in 2009 were related to crisis management, notably in the dairy sector, and to the implementation of recent reforms, including the Health Check of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) decided at the end of 2008. Member states amended their Rural Development Plans (RDPs) to use additional funds available for the following priorities: climate change, water management, renewable energy, biodiversity and related innovation, as well as restructuring the dairy sector. A compromise was found on banana and beef import regimes, ending two long-standing international trade disputes.
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      Iceland
      Based on a six year agreement between the government and the farmers’ association renewed in 2008, the support to sheepmeat producers has been simplified. New policies were implemented for young farmers as well as for those wishing to retire from age of 64 and to farmers participating in quality programmes. Decoupled payments to milk producers under the 2005 agreement continued to be implemented as well as payments to farmers participating in soil conservation and forestry programmes addressing soil erosion, promotion of sustainable land use and restoration of degraded land.
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      Japan
      In 2009, the policy to divert rice production to other crop (such as wheat and soybean) was strengthened through increasing the diversion payments. The government also implemented new measure to promote the production of rice for alternative demand (such as food processing and feed use) through diversion payments and financial assistance. In addition, major revision was made to the legal framework for farmland use to promote the efficient use of land though tenancy transaction. The restriction to acquire land use rights is revised to promote new entrants to the farm sector. The land conversion regulation was tightened to minimise the losses of agricultural land.
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      Korea
      Although there were no substantial policy changes implemented in 2009, an agricultural policy reform framework was presented by a council for the modernization of Korean agriculture, where policy makers and stakeholders agreed on more market orientation as well as promoting more environmentally friendly practices. Policy initiatives centred on links between primary agriculture and the development of the food industry, as well as support to precision farming practices with lower uses of fertilisers. A country of origin labelling scheme was applied to every restaurant serving beef, pork meat, chicken meat, rice and Kimchi. A farm machine leasing programme was expanded to reduce costs of capital for farmers.
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      Mexico
      A new legislation was passed in 2009 establishing new rules for PROCAMPO that, according to the Sectoral Programme 2007-12, will continue until 2012. These payments based on historical area will have a higher rate for small producers. There will also be a revision of the PROCAMPO register of land to improve the quality of the information.
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      New Zealand
      Recent policy initiatives in New Zealand relate to sustainable development and natural resource management issues, including water management, climate change and biosecurity control. In 2009, a Primary Growth Partnership was launched in which government and industry co-finance certain programmes of research and innovation to boost the economic growth and sustainability of primary and food sectors. The Sustainable Farming Fund provided financial grants to 70 community-led projects for the efficient use of water and land in 2009.
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      Norway
      While there were no significant changes in the overall policy framework, lower international prices led to increased market price support in 2009 relative to 2008. Key policy developments in 2009 included: increased support to climate change related measures such as reduced tillage, better use of natural fertilizer, reduced emissions of methane and increased carbon sequestration; removal of the target price for beef; introduction of a quota rental scheme for milk.
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      Switzerland
      In 2009, key elements of the Agricultural Policy Reform (AP 2011) governing agricultural policy for the period 2008-11 were implemented, such as further reduction of expenditures for market support and their reallocation in the form of direct payments. The payments for the dairy sector were reduced, while the direct payments for roughage-consuming animals were increased, as well as the payments for animals in mountain areas and summer pasturing. In April 2009 the milk quota system was totally abolished following a 3 year transition period. From July 2009, import levies on grains and animal feed were further reduced.
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      Turkey
      Implementation of the Agricultural Law, which intends to bring Turkey’s agricultural policies into line with those of the European Union, continues and new legislation is under consideration to enhance the institutional capacity of the public sector as envisaged in the EU legislation. The Rural Development Programme and a wider set of investment support activities have been continued.
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      United States
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      Chile
      Over the last ten years, the contribution of the agricultural sector to GDP has been constant at around 4%. The contribution of the sector to employment has decreased, from 19% in 1990 to 12% in 2007, but remains high relative to the sector’s share of value added, suggesting relatively low labour productivity in the agricultural sector as a whole. The Chilean agriculture is of dualistic nature, where a developed commercial sector co-exists with a large number of subsistence farms. With regard to agricultural output, the livestock sector has grown more rapidly than the crop sector, as new export business in pork and poultry has been developed. Agro-food exports have grown much more rapidly than agro-food imports, with a net surplus exceeding USD 7.8 billion in 2007.
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      Israel
      The relative importance of agriculture in the Israeli economy has declined over the last two decades, with its share in total employment and in domestic product falling to around 2-3%. At the same time, it accounts for over 50% of annual water consumption and the use of water resources is the dominant environmental issue for the sector. Israel is unique amongst developed countries in that land and water resources are nearly all state-owned. Co-operative communities, principally the kibbutz and moshav, dominate agricultural production accounting for about 80% of agricultural output. Growing labour productivity was a key contributor to the almost two-fold increase in total factor productivity in agriculture in 1990-2008, much stronger than in any other sector of the Israeli economy. The agro-food sector is strongly integrated with international markets with exports dominated by fruit and vegetables and imports by land-intensive cereals and oilseeds and selected other commodities such as beef and sugar. The negative balance of trade in agro-food products tended to increase in recent years.
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