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Pensions refer to payment made to a person (or their dependants) after retirement. Pension systems vary across countries and no single model fits all. Generally, there is a mix of public and private pension provision. Public pensions are statutory, most often financed on a pay-as-you-go basis (where current contributions pay for current benefits) and managed by public institutions. Private pensions are in some cases mandatory, but more often are voluntary, funded, employment-based pension plans or individual retirement savings plans. Pensions may also be supplemented by housing wealth, personal financial wealth, and publicly provided services.

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Keywords:  retirement, pension, subsidy, allowance, retiree, benefits

Net pension replacement rates You or your institution have access to this content


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The net replacement rate is defined as the individual net pension entitlement divided by net pre-retirement earnings, taking into account personal income taxes and social security contributions paid by workers and pensioners. It measures how effectively a pension system provides a retirement income to replace earnings, the main source of income before retirement. This indicator is measured in percentage of pre-retirement earnings by gender.

Also available in French
Keywords:  pensioners, elderly, earnings, retirement, old age, net pension replacement rate, benefits
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