Tradeable Permits

Tradeable Permits

Policy Evaluation, Design and Reform You do not have access to this content

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11 May 2004
9789264015036 (PDF) ;9789264015029(print)

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The search for cost-effective environmental policy measures has led to an increase in the use of tradeable permit systems.  This publication offers valuable lessons for applying tradeable permits and provides links between policy evaluation and policy making general.  It is for government officials responsible for the implementation and reform of tradeable permit systems, researchers concerned with their analysis and evaluation, and other stakeholders interested in the more general issues associated with environmental policy design and evaluation.

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  • Ex Post Evaluation of Tradeable Permits

    The workshop on the ‘Ex Post Evaluation of Tradeable Permits’ held at the OECD on January 21st–22nd, 2003 had multiple objectives. It sought not only to add to our stock of knowledge about how well tradeable permit systems work and the design features that contribute to desirable outcomes, it also sought to use detailed analysis of case studies to shed light on the evaluation process itself, as well as on more general issues associated with the links between policy evaluation and ...

  • Ex Post Evaluation of the Reclaim Emissions Trading Programmes for the Los Angeles Air Basin

    The emissions trading programme developed for the Los Angeles air basin—the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market ("RECLAIM")—provides perhaps the most complex experience thus far of any established emissions trading programmes. Begun in 1994 after a three-year development effort, the RECLAIM cap-and-trade programmes for nitrogen oxides ("NOX") and sulfur dioxide ("SO2") include participants from numerous sectors (in contrast to most other existing trading programmes, which focus on a single sector). Several project-based programmes that provide credits for reductions from mobile and area sources supplement the cap-and-trade programmes. Indeed, this basic structure is similar to that envisioned for other emissions trading programmes ...

  • The U.S. SO2 Cap-and-Trade Programme

    The U.S. SO2 cap-and-trade programme was established as a result of the enactment of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA) under the authority granted by Title IV, which included several measures to reduce precursor emissions of acid deposition.2 The SO2 component consisted of a two-phase, cap-and-trade programme for reducing SO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning power plants located in the continental forty-eight states of the United States. During Phase I, lasting from 1995 through 1999, electric generating units larger than 100 MWe in generating capacity with an annual average emission rate in 1985 greater than 2.5 pounds of SO2 per million ...

  • The Dutch Nutrient Quota System

    Trading in emission allowances based on a cap-and-trade system is broadly recognised in the theoretical literature as a cost efficient and environmentally effective instrument for emission reductions. However, there is considerable debate about the efficiency and effectiveness of these schemes in practice. Issues of concern are the potential impacts of market imperfections, the administration costs of allowance allocation and market establishment, and the competitiveness impacts on so-called ‘exposed’ sectors...

  • Evaluating the New Zealand Individual Transerable Quota Market for Fisheries Management

    Inshore fisheries depletion, the development of the quota-based programme for offshore fisheries, and the general orientation of the New Zealand government in the 1980s toward deregulation, combined to create an atmosphere conducive to fundamental change in New Zealand fisheries management. After several years of consultation with industry, the Fisheries Amendment Act of 1986 was passed, creating New Zealand’s individual transferable quota (ITQ) system. Modifying legislation has been passed several times since, but the basic structure of the system has remained intact...

  • Learning from The Market

    Australia, arguably more than any other OECD country has made a commitment to develop tradeable markets for access to water resources. The prime driver for this has been the development of a National Competition Policy, involving some monetary transfers of taxation revenue collected by the Commonwealth Government to State and Territory governments being conditional upon stepwise attainment of micro-economic reform goals. The focus of these National Competition Policy reforms has been in areas traditionally managed by State and Territory governments rather than the Commonwealth Government. The general aim has been to impose market disciplines on government enterprises associated with water, electricity, telecommunication, gas and rail. A ten-year reform ...

  • Compensating for the Impacts of Wetlands Fill

    Wetlands ecosystems are characterised by recurrent shallow inundation or saturation at or near the surface of the soil (NRC, 1995) and, based on the hydrologic regime and vegetative cover, can be categorised into wetlands types such as forested, shrub-scrub and bogs (Cowardin, et. al., 1979). Wetlands also can be described as a natural capital asset that may provide hydrologic services of flood and drought remediation, water quality services of sediment and nutrient assimilation and wildlife habitat services such as nursery and feeding area. The level of services from any particular wetlands depends on the wetlands type and its location in the landscape ...

  • The Management of Ex Post Public Policy Evaluations

    The previous chapters have revealed that the ‘management’ of policy evaluation extends well beyond the specific technical tasks associated with undertaking the evaluation exercise. Indeed, for evaluation to be effective it must be integrated in the public decision-making process more generally. As such, in this concluding chapter the focus extends beyond the evaluation process itself, to a broader discussion of how public policy evaluations fit into public administration more generally. An effort is made to link some of these issues to the case of the ex post evaluation of tradeable permits. It draws upon the case studies in the preceding chapters, as well as the aforementioned ‘policymakers’ roundtable’, and a review of the secondary literature ...

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