OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 4

Health Effects

2074-5788 (online)
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The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals is a collection of about 150 of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to identify and characterise potential hazards of chemicals. They are a set of tools for professionals, used primarily in regulatory safety testing and subsequent chemical and chemical product notification, chemical registration and in chemical evaluation. They can also be used for the selection and ranking of candidate chemicals during the development of new chemicals and products and in toxicology research. This group of tests covers health effects.

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Test No. 402: Acute Dermal Toxicity

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24 Feb 1987
9789264070585 (PDF)

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This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from a short-term exposure to solid or liquid test substance by the dermal route.

This Test Guideline is intended primarily for use with rodents (rat, rabbit or guinea pig may be used). For each dose at least 5 animals (of the same sex) are used. The test substance is applied to the skin (not less than 10 per cent of the body surface area) in graduated doses to several groups of experimental animals, one dose being used per group. At least three dose levels should be used, appropriately spaced to produce a dose-response curve. A limit test of at least 2000 mg/kg could be made. The observation period should be at least 14 days. During the first day the animals should be observed frequently and then the observations should be made daily. Necropsy of all animals should be carried out and all gross pathological changes should be recorded. A study of acute toxicity by the dermal route and determination of a dermal LD provides an estimate of the relative toxicity of a substance by the dermal route of exposure and they may serve as a basis for classification and labeling. It is an initial step in establishing a dosage regimen in subchronic and other studies and may provide information on dermal adsorption and the mode of toxic action of a substance by this route.

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