OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 1

Physical-Chemical properties

2074-5753 (online)
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The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals is a collection of about 150 of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to identify and characterise potential hazards of chemicals. They are a set of tools for professionals, used primarily in regulatory safety testing and subsequent chemical and chemical product notification, chemical registration and in chemical evaluation. They can also be used for the selection and ranking of candidate chemicals during the development of new chemicals and products and in toxicology research. This group of tests covers physical-chemical properties.

Also available in: French
Test No. 115: Surface Tension of Aqueous Solutions

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Publication Date :
27 July 1995
Pages :
9789264069787 (PDF)

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This Test Guideline describes methods to determine the surface tension (in N/m) of aqueous solutions. The methods are based on the measurement of the force which it is necessary to exert vertically on a stirrup or ring, in contact with the surface of the liquid, in order to separate it from the surface, or on a plate, with an edge in contact with the surface, in order to draw up the film that has formed.

There are four different methods: the plate method, the stirrup method, the ring method and the OECD harmonized ring method. They are described in detail in the ISO Standard 304-1985. The methods described are applicable to aqueous solutions of most substances regardless of their degree of purity. The concentration should be 90% of the saturation solubility, but must below 1g/l. This shall therefore be carried out under a protective cover to avoid interference at 20°C approximately. The ring is immersed below the surface of the solution. Then the table top, where the measurement vessel is placed, is lowered gradually and evenly at a rate of approximately 0.5 cm/min to detach the ring from the surface until the maximum force is reached. The force is read on the tensiometer. After completing the first measurement, measurements are repeated until a constant surface tension value is reached.

Also available in: French