Series on Emission Scenario Documents

2311-4606 (online)
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This is a selection of the Emission Scenario Document (ESDs) and Guidance documents related to ESDs. OECD has been working mainly on environmental exposure assessment for more than 10 years by developing a series of Emission Scenario Documents (ESDs) and other guidance documents and tools related to exposure of chemicals to the environment.

Pulp, Paper and Board Industry

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03 Sep 2014
9789264221086 (PDF)

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This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) is intended to provide information on the sources, use patterns and release pathways of chemicals used in the pulp, paper and board industry, in order to help estimate releases of chemicals into the environment. This ESD covers the use of chemicals in the making of paper and board and the recycling of paper and board. The main processes considered are paper-making and paper recycling

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Table of Contents

Explanatory Notes 7
1. Overview of the Pulp, Paper and Board Industry 13
-1.1 Introduction 13
-1.2 Raw materials: wood pulp and recycled fibre 14
-1.3 Product sectors 19
2. Processes and Substances Used in the Pulp and Paper Industry 22
-2.1 Paper-making 22
-2.2 Paper recycling: production of recycled fibres 30
-2.3 Comparison of the UK industry with the rest of the EU 38
3. Types of Substances Used and their Function 40
4. Identification of the Potential Points of Release and Estimates of the Amounts of Substance Released at these Points 45
-4.1 Sources of emissions to the environment 45
4.2 Estimation of percentage emission of chemicals (based on process) 51
5. Emission Scenarios 59
-5.1 Paper making (applicable to both recycled pulp and virgin pulp) 59
-5.2 Plants using recovered (recycled) paper 68
-5.3 Example calculations 74
6. Uncertainties 90
7. References 91
8. Abbreviations 95
9. Glossary 96
Appendix 1. Chemical Used in Paper-Making 98
Appendix 2. The European list of Standard Grades of Recovered Paper and Board  115
Appendix 3. CEN Recovered Paper and Board Types Listed under Traditional UK (PFGB) Grades 120
Appendix 4. Further Information on the Size of Operations in the UK Paper Industry 124
Appendix 5. Information on Emission Control Methods for the UK Paper Industry 128
Appendix 6. Estimation of Background Concentrations in Paper through Repeated Recycling 134
Appendix 7. Organisations Consulted 137

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