OECD Environmental Performance Reviews

1990-0090 (online)
1990-0104 (print)
Hide / Show Abstract

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews provide independent assessments of countries’ progress towards their environmental policy objectives. Reviews promote peer learning, enhance government accountability, and provide targeted recommendations aimed at improving environmental performance, individually and collectively. They are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data, and evidence-based analysis. Each cycle of Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD countries and selected partner economies.

Also available in French, German, Spanish, Italian
OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Portugal 2011

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Portugal 2011 You do not have access to this content

Click to Access: 
  • PDF
  • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/oecd-environmental-performance-reviews-portugal-2011_9789264097896-en
  • READ
11 Apr 2011
9789264097896 (PDF) ;9789264097841(print)

Hide / Show Abstract

This report presents the OECD review of Portugal’s environmental policy performance for 2011. It finds that environmental policies have been consolidated and strengthened since the last review in 2001, but that meeting the post-Kyoto targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions will be challenging. With energy and climate policies being closely related, the report points out that with less than 50% of hydro capacity currently being exploited, there is potential for further development in that area. It also describes the challenges regarding coastal zone and marine management.

Topics covered in the report include greening growth, implementation of environmental policies , international co-operation , climate change, waste management and the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle), and nature and biodiversity.

Further information about the Environmental Performance Review programme is available on line via www.oecd.org/env/countryreviews

loader image

Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Table of Contents

  • Mark Click to Access
  • Foreword
    Over the last decade, Portugal has made important progress in protecting the environment and enhancing the quality of life of its people. This has been underpinned by the transposition of EU Environmental Directives, and financing from the EU Cohesion and Structural Funds. Indeed, Portugal’s success in attracting and absorbing finance, and in effectively using it to establish environmental infrastructure and to build human and institutional capacities, provides many lessons for countries within and outside the EU.
  • Preface
    The principal aim of the OECD Environmental Performance Review programme is to help member and selected partner countries to improve their individual and collective performance in environmental management by...
  • General notes
  • Executive Summary
    In the decade since 2000, Portugal’s economy has enjoyed mixed fortunes: overall it has grown at a relatively slow rate, and GDP per capita remains low compared with OECD averages. Structural changes to the economy and increased environmentally related investment have also contributed to reducing environmental pressures. As a result, economic activity has generated relatively less pressure on the environment than in many other OECD countries. Environmental policies and institutions were consolidated and strengthened during the 2000s. The main challenges now are to implement environmental policies cost-effectively, and to promote a more coherent approach to environmental issues across all relevant sectors of public policy.
  • Add to Marked List
  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Sustainable Development

    • Mark Click to Access
    • Developments since the 2001 Review
      This chapter presents key characteristics of the Portuguese economy and society, the evolution in this area since 2001, and its impact on Portugal’s natural entities. Also examined are trends in managing pressures on the environment, including emissions of air and water pollutants, and generation of industrial and municipal waste. There has been notable progress in the state of Portugal’s environment, which includes an improvement in the quality of air in urban areas and Portugal’s contribution to addressing the global climate change challenge, the advancement in the quality of inland and coastal water, as well as changes to natural habitats and biodiversity. This chapter also describes the development of the framework for environmental and sustainable development policies, including the institutional structure and set-up at the national and sub-national levels and a number of policy initiatives launched during the review period.
    • Greening Growth
      Following a period of modest economic growth, Portugal entered a sharp recession in 2008-09 and its public finances deteriorated significantly. The anti-crisis stimulus package included several environment-related measures, such as support for energy efficiency, renewable energy technologies, and investment in electricity and smart grids. Reforming the tax system, further expanding environmentally related taxes, and removing environmentally harmful tax concessions and subsidies could help fiscal consolidation without hampering economic recovery. Public funds, including those from EU sources, continue to account for about two-thirds of total environmental expenditure. Nonetheless, private environmental investment, ecoindustries and related employment have increased in recent years. Portugal needs to further promote eco-innovation and improve its workforce skills, with a view to enhancing productivity, international competitiveness, and the growth prospects of its economy.
    • Implementation of Environmental Policies
      Portugal has developed a comprehensive environmental planning and programming framework that encompasses the EU requirements. This chapter outlines the evolution of this mix of environmental policy instruments, including regulatory, economic and information-based measures. Portugal’s extensive system of environmental enforcement and compliance promotion is examined, along with the efforts made in promoting public participation in environmental decision-making and opening up access to information and justice. Progress has been noted in the improvement of air quality, particularly in urban areas, reducing pressures on inland and coastal waters, strengthening the management of water supply and sanitation systems, and improving waste management efforts, including the reduction, appropriate treatment, and safe disposal of hazardous waste. This chapter also examines the steps taken to strengthen nature protection and biodiversity conservation.
    • International Co-operation
      Portugal has been a forerunner of the European maritime policy. It has also influenced EU policy development on water scarcity and drought, climate change and biodiversity, but ensuring compliance with the EU Common Fisheries Policy remains a difficult challenge. Over the last decade, Portugal has ratified important international agreements aimed at preventing marine pollution from ships. Multilateral co-operation has been fruitful in preventing illegal movements of waste and trade in endangered species of wildlife fauna and flora. Joint management of shared river basins is a continuing challenge in Portugal’s co-operation with Spain. Budget constraints bear on Portuguese development assistance, including for the promotion of the environment.
    • Add to Marked List
  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Selected Issues

    • Mark Click to Access
    • Energy and Environment Integration
      Portugal’s climate and energy policies are closely intertwined. Portugal is highly dependent on imported fossil fuels, which has stimulated diversification of the energy mix. The increased use of both natural gas and renewable energy sources is the main reason for the decline in greenhouse gas emissions since 2005. The challenge will be to sustain this reduction once economic growth resumes, with a view to achieving Portugal’s targets by 2020. Portugal has also actively supported energy efficiency and renewable sources, and it is poised to meet its ambitious renewable energy target. However, these policies should be assessed to ensure that they do not overlap with the EU Emissions Trading System, that energy prices reflect environmental costs, and that they are cost-effective. Portugal has introduced strong incentives to use more efficient vehicles and has developed ambitious plans to promote electric vehicles. Nonetheless, incentives to optimise decisions concerning car use could be further improved.
    • Coastal Zone Management
      This chapter analyses key challenges in the management of coastal zones of mainland Portugal, namely coastal areas and coastal waters. It examines a variety of pressures, natural and man-made, including coastal erosion, extensive development of secondary housing, as well as pressures brought by growing tourism, fisheries, industrial development and maritime traffic. Steps have been taken to reduce these pressures, including the development of an integrated coastal zone management plan, reform of the institutional framework, and the introduction of a mix of regulatory, economic and investment measures. These measures are analysed in light of their effectiveness and efficiency, and their integration with other policies, including tourism and climate change.
    • Add to Marked List
Visit the OECD web site