OECD Environmental Performance Reviews

1990-0090 (online)
1990-0104 (print)
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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews provide independent assessments of countries’ progress towards their environmental policy objectives. Reviews promote peer learning, enhance government accountability, and provide targeted recommendations aimed at improving environmental performance, individually and collectively. They are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data, and evidence-based analysis. Each cycle of Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD countries and selected partner economies.

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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Peru 2017

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22 Dec 2017
9789264283138 (PDF) ; 9789264288959 (EPUB) ;9789264283121(print)

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This report is the first review of Peru’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on environmental management (air, waste and chemicals, water and biodiversity) and the sustainable use of the natural resource base. The environmental performance of the farming, fishing and mining sectors is analysed in detail.

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  • Preface

    The Republic of Peru has experienced notable economic growth in recent years. Between 2005 and 2015 Peru’s gross domestic product grew by an annual average of 5.8%, owing to a combination of macroeconomic stability, openness to trade and growing inflows of foreign direct investment attracted by the country’s wealth of natural resources and high commodity prices. Despite the marked significance of this growth phase, the challenge that remains is to transform that growth into more inclusive and sustainable economic development.

  • Foreword

    This is the first Environmental Performance Review of Peru. It is the result of the joint work of the OECD and United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).

  • Reader's guide
  • Executive summary

    Peru is a megabiodiverse country, with a variety of tropical and subtropical climates, the Humboldt current flowing along its coast, the Andes mountains running from north to south and the Amazon in its eastern part, all of which give it a great diversity of ecosystems and natural wealth. Peru has the second largest extent of Amazon forest and more than half of its surface area is forested. Peru is also the world’s largest single species fisheries producer (anchovies) and has huge reserves of ores and hydrocarbons: it is Latin America's largest gold producer and the world's third largest producer of copper. The country is experiencing a remarkable economic growth thanks to macroeconomic stability, trade and investment openness and natural-resource-based exports. However, it has failed to resolve its acute social inequality and the pressures on its biodiversity and ecosystems. Moreover, Peru is highly vulnerable to environmental changes, particularly those related to climate change and extreme events such as the El Niño phenomenon.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Progress toward sustainable development

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    • Background and key environmental trends

      This chapter provides an overview of Peru’s main achievements and remaining challenges on the path towards green growth and sustainable development. Drawing on indicators from national and international sources, it assesses the state of the environment and natural resources and key environmental trends, focusing on the period since 2003.

    • Policy-making environment

      This chapter assesses progress in environmental governance over the last decade. It provides an overview of the institutional framework for environmental management, touching upon horizontal and vertical co-ordination mechanisms. It discusses land use planning and examines Peru’s innovative approach to environmental licensing. Finally, it discusses enforcement of environmental law and the provision of environmental information.

    • Economy and the environment

      Peru’s economy has performed well over the last decade thanks to macroeconomic stability, open trade, and inflows of foreign direct investment. However, much remains to be done to green the economy, as evidenced by poor performance on a number of environmental indicators. Growing awareness of the economic implications of environmental degradation has prompted action to endorse the OECD Declaration on Green Growth. This chapter reviews Peru’s achievements in the areas of environmentally related taxation, public expenditure, public-private partnerships and eco-innovation.

    • Society and environment

      Peru has reduced poverty, inequality, malnutrition and environmental health impacts over the past decade while improving access to water and energy services, although there is still room for improvement in all these areas. This chapter reviews Peru's efforts and achievements in the field of environmental democracy, in terms of public participation in decision-making and access to environmental justice and information. Finally, it discusses measures to improve environmental education and raise public awareness of environmental issues.

    • International co-operation and commitments

      This chapter reviews Peru’s efforts to fulfill its international commitments to protect the environment. It covers climate change mitigation, with Lima hosting COP20, and biodiversity protection, with Peru being a megadiverse country. It also covers the UN Convention to Combat Desertification and international conventions for the protection of the marine environment. The chapter reviews free trade agreements that address environmental matters, as well as regional and bilateral co-operation. Finally, it discusses measures to make the best use of official development assistance.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Environmental quality of life

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    • Air quality management

      This chapter discusses the main developments in air quality management, including action plans in priority zones of attention. It reviews the state of air quality and health impacts and discusses information measures (or lack thereof). The chapter presents the regulatory framework for air quality management and focuses on the transport sector, detailing the measures taken to improve vehicles, fuel quality and public transport, and to reduce congestion.

    • Management of waste and chemicals

      This chapter discusses major developments in waste management, including the development of waste management plans at different scales. It reviews the state of production, collection and disposal of waste and discusses related information measures (or lack thereof). It presents regulatory frameworks for municipal, industrial and hazardous waste management. The chapter also presents trends in the use of chemicals and points to the lack of specific policies and plans for chemicals. It reviews the chemicals risk management policy and import measures. Finally, it discusses mercury releases from small-scale mining.

    • Water resources

      This chapter presents the main trends in water quality, progress in achieving (ambitious) water quality objectives, the challenges ahead and the health effects of poor water quality. It discusses the regulatory framework for water resource management, including at the watershed scale. It reviews pricing and infrastructure development for water supply and sanitation. Finally, the chapter discusses the role of direct regulations and economic instruments in water management and proposes a risk-based approach to water management.

    • Biodiversity

      This chapter reviews the pressures on Peru's biodiversity, including agro-biodiversity, the number of species at risk, and the regulatory framework to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. It also assesses progress (or lack of progress) in the use of direct regulations and economic instruments for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, such as protected areas, land use planning, granting of property rights, public financial support and payments for ecosystem services.

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  • Expand / Collapse Hide / Show all Abstracts Use of natural resources base

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    • Farming and forestry

      This chapter presents the main characteristics and trends of the Peruvian agricultural sector and the institutional framework for the implementation of agricultural policies. It provides information on the use of nutrients and pesticides in agriculture and reviews the negative impacts of farming on deforestation, greenhouse gas emissions, soil and water. The chapter points to the lack of monitoring of agri-environmental performance and emphasises the need for environmental education of farmers.

    • Fisheries

      This chapter presents the main characteristics and trends of the Peruvian fisheries sector, including fish farming and freshwater fishing in Amazonia, as well as the institutional framework for fisheries policies. Despite the progress made in the management of some fisheries resources, such as anchovy, the creation of marine protected areas, and the environmental regulation of the fish industries, environmental performance suffers from a lack of information on endangered aquatic species and the presence of an informal economy. The chapter calls for a strategy for integrated management of the marinecoastal ecosystem.

    • Mining sector

      This chapter presents the main characteristics and trends of the Peruvian mining sector, as well as the legal framework for the mining industry. It reviews the status of exploration and exploitation permits as well as the direct regulation of extraction and processing activities on air and water. It reviews conflict resolution mechanisms with local communities, environmental liability policy and the management of contaminated sites. The chapter discusses efforts to formalise the artisanal mining and avoid local mercury water pollution, which has led Peru to recently ratify the Minamata Convention on Mercury.

    • Selected Data
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