OECD Environmental Performance Reviews

ISSN :
1990-0090 (online)
ISSN :
1990-0104 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/19900090
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OECD Environmental Performance Reviews provide independent assessments of countries’ progress in achieving domestic and international environmental policy commitments and goals, together with policy-relevant recommendations.  They address the management of air, water, waste, biodiversity, and land; they examine the relationship between economic and social policy and the environment; and they describe the subject country’s international co-operation in such areas as climate change, marine pollution and development co-operation.  Each report includes a broad range of economic and environmental statistical data. On average, five or six countries are reviewed each year.

Also available in: French, German, Spanish, Italian
 
OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Netherlands 2003

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Author(s):
OECD
Publication Date :
02 June 2003
Pages :
248
ISBN :
9789264101005 (PDF) ; 9789264100992 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/9789264101005-en

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This review of the Netherland's environmental conditions and policies evaluates progress in reducing the pollution burden, improving natural resource management, integrating environmental and economic policies, and strengthening international co-operation. The analyses presented are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data.
Also available in: French

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  • Click to Access:  Conclusions and Recommendations

    The Netherlands, which has a very open economy, experienced rapid expansion during the last ten years. It is the world’s sixth largest exporting country, and its gross domestic product (GDP) is the world’s 14th highest. The Netherlands has become a hub of international commerce, with a transport infrastructure centred on the port of Rotterdam (the busiest port in the world) and Amsterdam-Schiphol airport...

  • Click to Access:  Air Management

    The following recommendations are part of the overall conclusions and recommendations of the OECD Environmental Performance Review of the Netherlands: • continue efforts to reduce emissions of NOx, particulate matter and NMVOCs (e.g. from transport, energy and industry) in light of persistent problems with concentrations of NO2, PM10 and ozone in some areas; implement the proposed NOx emission trading scheme; • pursue efforts to reduce ammonia emissions from agriculture; • provide small businesses with appropriate enforcement mechanisms to address long-term emission objectives, particularly for ozone precursors and priority substances; • continue to work towards increased energy efficiency; • expand the use of renewable energy sources (e.g. in municipalities and large firms)...

  • Click to Access:  Water Management

    The following recommendations are part of the overall conclusions and recommendations of the OECD Environmental Performance Review of the Netherlands: • strongly pursue implementation of policies to allocate "more space for water", establish ecological networks and better protect areas at risk (e.g. from floods); in particular, integrate water management, nature management and spatial planning; • reinforce actions to combat groundwater depletion; complete and implement comprehensive provincial groundwater plans; • further reduce nitrogen loads from intensive agriculture (livestock and crop production) in line with related international commitments (EU Nitrates Directive, North Sea action programme); • strengthen efforts to achieve further progress in dealing with emergency overflows from combined sewers....

  • Click to Access:  Nature Conservation and Biodiversity

    The following recommendations are part of the overall conclusions and recommendations of the OECD Environmental Performance Review of the Netherlands: • complete establishment of the national ecological network according to targets, taking account of requirements of the EU Birds and Habitats Directives; • achieve the target of 20 to 30% of natural areas fully protected against acidification and eutrophication, particularly by reducing pressures from agriculture and the waste water industry; • reinforce implementation of nature conservation objectives in agricultural policy, particularly by meeting reduction targets for pesticide use, ammonia emissions and desiccation, speeding up farmland conversion in natural areas, and tackling diffuse water pollution by nitrogen compounds...

  • Click to Access:  Environmental – economic Interface

    The following recommendations are part of the overall conclusions and recommendations of the OECD Environmental Performance Review of the Netherlands: • implement environmental plans and objectives with determination; • strengthen institutional integration, particularly to ensure that a sustainable development framework is firmly embedded in central, provincial and local government and across key sectors, notably energy, agriculture and transport; • refine the market based instruments and extend the environmental tax system, having regard to simplicity, effectiveness, transaction costs and carrying out cost-benefit analysis...

  • Click to Access:  Environmental-social Interface

    The following recommendations are part of the overall conclusions and recommendations of the OECD Environmental Performance Review of the Netherlands: • strengthen measures to improve external safety in relation to transport (e.g. air traffic, railways, transport of hazardous substances) and chemical installations; • strengthen efforts to improve the quality of the living environment with respect to noise nuisance, air pollution and access to green areas for recreation, especially in the case of low-income groups; • further maintain a high-quality environmental information base and ensure continuity in environmental reporting activities...

  • Click to Access:  Sectoral Integration

    The following recommendations are part of the overall conclusions and recommendations of the OECD Environmental Performance Review of the Netherlands: • strengthen or revive efforts to integrate environmental and sustainable development concerns into transport policy; • further internalise externalities into transport operation and pricing: strengthen the use of existing economic instruments and introduce new ones, such as the suggested per-kilometre tax on lorries and cars (with differentiated rates according to time, place and the environmental impact of each vehicle) or other relevant instruments; • work towards eliminating domestic and international distortions in competition among transport modes (e.g. subsidisation, taxation, standards), including within the EU, IMO and ICAO....

  • Click to Access:  International Commitments and Co-operation

    The following recommendations are part of the overall conclusions and recommendations of the OECD Environmental Performance Review of the Netherlands: • take into account ancillary benefits of reducing SOx and VOC emissions when assessing the cost-effectiveness of potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction measures, and develop means to implement the polluter pays principle through the Kyoto mechanisms; • take steps to ensure full implementation and enforcement of new international commitments concerning port reception and ship-generated wastes and cargo residues; • continue to work in international fora to promote management of shared and straddling marine stocks in the North Sea following an ecosystem management approach; • put an end to illegal trade in ozone depleting substances....

  • Click to Access:  Annexes
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