06 June 2008
The Health Costs of Inaction with Respect to Air Pollution
How much does the environment affect human health? Is air pollution shortening our lives and those of our
children? These questions are fundamental to environmental policies. Air pollution is a major environmental
health threat in OECD countries, contributing to a number of illnesses, such as...
08 Oct 2008
Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge Risk in Port Cities
This study illustrates a methodology to assess economic impacts of climate change at city scale,
focusing on sea level rise and storm surge. It is based on a statistical analysis of past storm surges in the
studied city, matched to a geographical-information analysis of the population and asset...
19 Nov 2008
Ranking Port Cities with High Exposure and Vulnerability to Climate Extremes
This global screening study makes a first estimate of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal
flooding due to storm surge and damage due to high winds. This assessment also investigates how climate
change is likely to impact each port city's exposure to coastal flooding by the...
10 Dec 2008
The Economics of Climate Change Impacts and Policy Benefits at City Scale
Climate change has become a priority issue in global environmental governance and cities are important players. For over three decades, the OECD has been actively supporting member and non-member countries to design environmental policies that are both economically efficient and effective at...
26 Jan 2009
Greening Development Planning
Different approaches to making the economic case for improved management of natural capital in national planning are reviewed in this report. In many low-income countries natural resources sectors (agriculture,
mining, forestry, fishery, nature-based tourism) are identified as the engines of...
24 Mar 2009
Economic Aspects of Adaptation to Climate Change
The present report seeks to inform critical questions with regard to policy mixes of investments in adaptation and mitigation, and how they might vary over time. This is facilitated here by examining adaptation within global Integrated Assessment Modelling frameworks.
None of the existing...
14 May 2009
Assessing Environmental Management Capacity: Towards a Common Reference Framework
The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness calls upon donor and partner countries to enhance the
effectiveness and efficiency of country systems in a way that guarantees ownership and sustainable
results. Within this context, the current paper provides a synthesis of major elements and...
14 May 2009
Integrating Public Environmental Expenditure within Multi-year Budgetary Frameworks
Medium-term approaches to budgeting are now common in OECD countries and are being adopted
increasingly by developing countries. This reflects a realisation that the annual approach to budget making
actually undermines budgetary performance, contributing to fiscal instability and, perhaps even...
27 Nov 2009
Promoting Biodiversity Co-Benefits in REDD
This report examines how biodiversity co-benefits in REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) can be enhanced, both at the design and
implementation level. It discusses potential biodiversity implications of different REDD design options
that have been put forward in...
02 Dec 2009
Cities, Climate Change and Multilevel Governance
Cities represent a challenge and an opportunity for climate change policy. As the hubs of economic activity, cities generate the bulk of GHG emissions and are thus important to mitigation strategies. Urban planning will shape future trends and the concentration of population, socio-economic...
17 Dec 2009
Policies for the Development and Transfer of Eco-Innovations
Along with the recent success of economic growth in the developing world comes more pollution. Reducing these emissions while still enabling these countries to grow requires the use of new technologies in these countries. In most cases, these technologies are first created in high-income...
17 Dec 2009
Literature Review of Recent Trends and Future Prospects for Innovation in Climate Change Mitigation
The international discussion about global climate change now revolves around what the necessary set of policies and technologies will be needed to realize reduction goals. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at 450 to 550 parts per million will require policy changes...
11 Jan 2010
Linkages between Environmental Policy and Competitiveness
Debates exist between those who claim that environmental policy will impose additional burdens
and costs on industries, thus impairing their competitiveness, and those who claim that improved
environmental performance can spur competitiveness. These arguments often surface when...
12 Feb 2010
Assessing the Role of Microfinance in Fostering Adaptation to Climate Change
Much of the current policy debate on adaptation to climate change has focussed on estimation of adaptation costs, ways to raise and to scale-up funding for adaptation, and the design of the international institutional architecture for adaptation financing. There is however little or no emphasis...
16 Mar 2010
Environmental Policy Design Characteristics and Technological Innovation
This paper focuses on the issue of innovation and technology transfer in the areas of air pollution abatement, wastewater effluent treatment, solid waste management, and climate change mitigation. The paper describes the trends in innovative activity related to selected areas of pollution...
05 May 2010
Differentiated Intellectual Property Regimes for Environmental and Climate Technologies
Prior to the Copenhagen meeting on developing a new framework for climate-change policy there were
sharp differences between the positions of developed and developing countries regarding the role of
intellectual property rights (IPRs) in fostering international technology transfer (ITT)....
18 May 2010
Enhancing Developing Country Access to Eco-Innovation
The deployment of eco-innovations in developing countries is a key driver of their contribution to
efficiently addressing global environmental challenges. It is also a key driver of markets for eco-innovation
and sustainable economic development.
This report explores the barriers developing...
10 June 2010
Outcome Performance Measures of Environmental Compliance Assurance
This report analyses the experience of ten OECD countries in the design and implementation of
quantitative indicators used to assess the outcomes of environmental enforcement authorities’ efforts to
ensure compliance with pollution prevention and control regulations.
To respond to the growing...
03 Aug 2010
Voluntary Carbon Markets
In this paper, we aim to examine how voluntary carbon markets can provide a valuable contribution to strengthening domestic and international climate policies. Voluntary markets are defined as small and unregulated segments of an established carbon market that are driven by voluntary offsetting...
04 Aug 2010
Costs, Revenues, and Effectiveness of the Copenhagen Accord Emission Pledges for 2020
Tackling the problem of global climate change requires a high level of international cooperation. Many countries have pledged targets or actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the Appendices to the Copenhagen Accord. This analysis examines the costs and effectiveness of these pledges,...
04 Aug 2010
Buying and Cancelling Allowances as an Alternative to Offsets for the Voluntary Market
In recent years, businesses, local governments and individuals have set goals for reducing their emissions of greenhouse gases. In addition to directly reducing their own emissions, many of these entities have purchased carbon offsets to help achieve their mitigation goals. Yet establishing...
04 Aug 2010
Towards Global Carbon Pricing
Emissions trading systems (ETS) can play a major role in a cost-effective climate policy framework. Both direct linking of ETSs and indirect linking through a common crediting mechanism can reduce costs of action. We use a global recursive-dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess...
10 Aug 2010
Plan or React? Analysis of Adaptation Costs and Benefits Using Integrated Assessment Models
Financing for adaptation is a core element in the ongoing international negotiations on climate change. This has motivated a number of recent global estimates of adaptation costs. While important from an agenda setting perspective, many of these estimates nevertheless have a number of...
19 Nov 2010
Cities and Carbon Market Finance
The importance of cities in climate policy stems from the simple reality that they house the majority
of the world’s population, two-thirds of world energy use and over 70% of global energy use emissions. At
the international level, global carbon markets have become an important new source of...
22 Nov 2010
Flood Risks, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Benefits in Mumbai
Managing risks from extreme events will be a crucial component of climate change adaptation. In this
study, we demonstrate an approach to assess future risks and quantify the benefits of adaptation options at
a city-scale, with application to flood risk in Mumbai.
In 2005, Mumbai experienced...
15 Dec 2010
Climate Policy and Technological Innovation and Transfer
Technological innovation can lower the cost of achieving environmental objectives. As such, understanding the linkages between environmental policy and technological innovation in achieving environmental objectives is important. This is particularly true in the area of climate change, where the...
10 Feb 2011
Capacity Development for Environmental Management in the Agricultural Sector in Developing Countries
The relationships between agriculture, the environment, and development are deep and complex. By
2050 a 70 per cent increase in production will be needed to feed an additional 2.7 billion people on an
already degraded natural resource base. In light of this and amid the realities of climate...
10 Feb 2011
Capacity Development for Environmental Management and Governance in the Energy Sector in Developing Countries
The relationships between energy, the environment, and development are deep and complex. The International Energy Agency has noted that energy is deeply implicated in each of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of human development. Energy services provide an essential input to...
18 Mar 2011
Greening Growth in Japan
A decade of sluggish economic growth, concluding with the sharpest recession since the Second
World War, has underlined the need for Japan to develop a new growth model. Such a model should
restore public finances and long-term growth while preserving environmental quality and ensuring...
28 Mar 2011
Medium-term Management of Green Budget: The Case of Ukraine
The purpose of this study is to examine the medium-term budget planning process in Ukraine and the
extent to which this approach is used within the environmental sector. It aims to assist the Ukrainian
government to integrate environmental programmes more effectively into overall programming,...
31 May 2011
Environmental Enforcement in Decentralised Governance Systems
This report analyses approaches to managing environmental compliance monitoring and enforcement in
several OECD countries with decentralised systems of environmental governance. It focuses principally on
strategies and instruments for promoting consistency in the implementation of national...
21 June 2011
Policy Interventions to Address Health Impacts Associated with Air Pollution, Unsafe Water Supply and Sanitation, and Hazardous Chemicals
The purpose of the paper is to review the recent empirical literature relating to the quantification and
valuation of the human health impacts of air pollution, hazardous chemicals, and unsafe water and
sanitation, and their use in cost-benefit analysis, as an input to environmental policy...
01 July 2011
Environmental Policy Stringency and Foreign Direct Investment
This paper examines empirically whether countries with relatively more lax environmental regimes
have a comparative advantage in their competition for foreign direct investment. It seeks to contribute to
the literature in several important ways. First, we use a measure of environmental...
29 July 2011
Sources of Finance, Investment Policies and Plant Entry in the Renewable Energy Sector
This report looks specifically at the full array of public policies promoting investment in the renewable energy sector, and discusses their impact on plant entry into the market, with the support of case studies focusing on Germany, the U.S.A. and Australia. It examines differing risk/return...
29 July 2011
Harmonising Climate Risk Management
Development planners and project managers have used a wide variety of tools to manage a broad range of environmental risks, including those posed by climate variability, for a long time. Some of these tools have also now been modified to take into account the risks posed by climate change. At...
29 Nov 2011
Incorporating Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Environmental Impact Assessments
National governments and development agencies have invested considerable effort in recent years to develop methodologies and tools to screen their projects for the risks posed by climate change. However, these tools have largely been developed by the climate change community and their...
30 Nov 2011
Private Sector Engagement in Adaptation to Climate Change: Approaches to Managing Climate Risks
There is growing international interest in the planning, financing and implementation of adaptation to climate change. However, the discussion to date has primarily focused on the public sector’s role, with the private sector viewed primarily as a source of funding or financing. Relatively...
12 Dec 2011
Employment Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Policies in OECD
Using a computable general equilibrium, this paper quantifies the GDP and employment effects of an illustrative greenhouse gas emissions reduction policy. The paper first analyses the direct negative economic effects of the emissions restrictions on GDP and examines labour sectoral...
15 Dec 2011
An Economic Projection to 2050: The OECD "ENV-Linkages" Model Baseline
This document describes economic baseline projections to 2050 for several world regions. It describes
how socio-economic drivers are used to create a consistent projection of economic activity for the coming
decades, applying the general framework of "conditional convergence". This economic...
20 Feb 2012
International Technology Agreements for Climate Change
This paper examines the effect of multilateral energy technology initiatives, so called "Implementing
Agreements", on international research collaboration in seven important climate change mitigation
technologies. The analysis is conducted using patent data on 33 OECD countries during the...
20 Mar 2012
Environmental Quality and Life Satisfaction
Environmental conditions are likely to have an effect on people’s sense of life satisfaction, both directly and indirectly. In recent years there has been a burgeoning literature assessing the relationship between measures of environmental quality and subjective well-being. This type of studies...
26 Mar 2012
Adaptation and Innovation
Innovation in technologies that promote mitigation and adaptation will be critical for tackling climate change. It can decrease the costs of policy measures and provide new opportunities for the private sector. However, most discussions of innovation have focused on mitigation, while little...
05 Apr 2012
Monitoring and Evaluation for Adaptation: Lessons from Development Co-operation Agencies
In the context of scaled up funding for climate change adaptation, it is more important than ever to
ensure the effectiveness, equity and efficiency of adaptation interventions. Robust monitoring and
evaluation (M&E) is an essential part of this, both to ensure that the prospective benefits of...
14 Sep 2012
The Determinants of Invention in Electricity Generation Technologies
This paper analyses the determinants of invention in efficiency-enhancing electricity generation
technologies that have the potential to facilitate climate change mitigation efforts, including fossil fuelbased
technologies aimed at reducing carbon emissions, renewables and nuclear technologies....
20 Sep 2012
Green Transformation of Small Businesses
This report aims to help environmental and other competent authorities in OECD countries to promote
green business practices among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It analyses different ways to
establish environmental regulatory requirements for facilities with low environmental risk...
07 Nov 2012
Behavioural Economics and Environmental Incentives
This review aims to improve our understanding of the implications of the insights from behavioural economics for environmental policy design. The review focuses on the question of incentive design in two broad areas — risk, conflict and cooperation; and mechanism design. A number of lessons for...
12 Nov 2012
Towards a Green Investment Policy Framework
Achieving low-carbon, climate-resilient (LCR) development is a policy goal of many governments today, and investment in built-infrastructure – in the energy, transport, water and building sectors – is a central part of the challenge. In the face of growing infrastructure needs and fiscal...
16 Nov 2012
Climate Mitigation and Adaptation in Africa
This paper presents comparative data on innovation in selected climate change mitigation and adaptation technologies in the context of Africa. Such analysis informs policy aimed at encouraging international technology transfer and development of domestic innovation capacities. We present...
23 Nov 2012
Mobilising Investment in Low Carbon, Climate Resilient Infrastructure
This paper addresses several broad issues for governments aiming to encourage private sector investment in low-carbon climate resilient (LCR) infrastructure, in both developed and developing world contexts. LCR infrastructure is defined, recognizing the interdependencies between infrastructure...
05 Dec 2012
Testing the Effect of Defaults on the Thermostat Settings of OECD Employees
Default options have been shown to affect behaviour in a variety of economic choice tasks, including
health care and retirement savings. Less research has tested whether defaults affect behaviour in the
domain of energy efficiency. This study uses data from a randomized controlled experiment in...