Nordic perspectives on the Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone
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Nordic perspectives on the Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone

The 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone, with focus on emissions of NOX, SOX, NH3, and VOC, is the latest protocol under UNECE's Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. This report offers a Nordic perspective on implementation of the protocol in terms of the measures that have been introduced in the Nordic countries, the effects of these measures as well as how the reductions agreed under the protocol may be attained.

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Author(s):
Nordic Council of Ministers

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The Gothenburg Protocol established a new multi-pollutant, multi-effect framework for regionally concerted action on control of conventional emissions (SO2, NOX, NH3 and VOC), with the aim of reducing gaps between existing emissions and levels regarded as desirable to avoid negative impacts on vegetation and health. The Nordic parties to the protocol are obliged to close exceedance of critical levels by 100 % for SO2, 25 % for NOX and 60 % for VOC. This entails considerable improvements on top of business-as-usual reductions, but also leaves some room for future progress. For NH3 the protocol allows Nordic countries a small increase in emissions due to Sweden and Norway. The multi-pollutant multi-effect framework offers the possibility to balance reduction efforts with costs and impacts, as derived from cost-effectiveness analysis guided by the RAINS model.