Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels 2013

Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels 2013 You do not have access to this content

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Author(s):
OECD
Publication Date :
28 Jan 2013
Pages :
440
ISBN :
9789264187610 (PDF) ; 9789264187603 (print)
DOI :
10.1787/9789264187610-en

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This Inventory is concerned with direct budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to fossil fuels, regardless of their impact or of the purpose for which the measures were first put in place. It has been undertaken as an exercise in transparency, and to inform the international dialogue on fossil-fuel subsidy reform. For each of the 34 OECD countries covered, the Inventory provides a succinct summary of its energy economy, and of the budgetary and tax-related measures provided at the central-government level (and, in the case of federal countries, for selected sub-national units of government) relating to fossil-fuel production or consumption. The transfers associated with these measures are reported for recent years using the Producer Support Estimate (PSE) and Consumer Support Estimate (CSE) as organising frameworks. These frameworks have already been used extensively by the OECD, most notably in respect of agriculture. The Inventory covers a wide range of measures that provide a benefit or preference for a particular activity or a particular product, either in absolute terms or relative to other activities or products, against a specified baseline. Many measures listed in this inventory are relative preferences within a particular country’s tax system rather than absolute support that can be readily compared across countries, and for that reason no national totals are provided.

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    Foreword
    The aftermath of the worst economic crisis of our lifetimes is a challenging environment for government policy. This is particularly the case in more advanced economies, where a combination of persistent unemployment and high levels of public debt poses difficult challenges for policymakers. Remedies are needed that will promote sustained growth over the longer term. At the same time, governments are searching for ways to improve the fiscal and environmental situation in the short term. One promising avenue is the removal of inefficient and environmentally harmful subsidies.
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    Abbreviations
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    Executive Summary
    OECD member countries are still slowly recovering from the worst economic crisis in decades. With increasing understanding of the risks of climate change, countries are struggling at home and internationally to find cost-effective measures to reduce their greenhouse-gas emissions. Policy makers are faced with having to deal with a multitude of challenges at once: nourishing growth while encouraging it to become more "green"; preventing high unemployment rates from becoming entrenched; reducing government deficits; and managing global imbalances. Implementing growth-friendly fiscal structures and public-spending patterns is critical to reducing imbalances and stimulating growth.
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    Introduction
    This chapter describes the coverage, method and data sources used to compile the country information contained in the Inventory. It also examines the way in which this information should be interpreted, with particular attention devoted to the concept of tax expenditures given its relative importance for the report. A distinction is made among tax expenditures based on whether they relate to the consumption of fossil fuels, to the use of fossil fuels as inputs to production, or to the production of fossil fuels. Measurement issues are also examined, in particular the role of tax benchmarks and the importance of the broader tax system to understand the meaning of tax-expenditure estimates. Lastly, this chapter provides an overview of OECD-wide support to the production and use of fossil fuels in the form of a few summary charts and statistics.
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    Australia
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Australia. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Austria
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Austria. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Belgium
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    Canada
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Canada. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Chile
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Chile. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Czech Republic
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in the Czech Republic. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A datadocumentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Denmark
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Denmark. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Estonia
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Estonia. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Finland
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Finland. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    France
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in France. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Germany
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Germany. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Greece
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Greece. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Hungary
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Hungary. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Iceland
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Iceland. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Ireland
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Ireland. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Israel
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Israel. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Italy
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Italy. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Japan
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Japan. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Korea
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Korea. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Luxembourg
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Luxembourg. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Mexico
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Mexico. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Netherlands
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in the Netherlands. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    New Zealand
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in New Zealand. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Norway
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Norway. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Poland
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Poland. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Portugal
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Portugal. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Slovak Republic
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in the Slovak Republic. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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    Slovenia
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Slovenia. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2212051ec033.pdf
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    Spain
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Spain. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2212051ec034.pdf
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    • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/inventory-of-estimated-budgetary-support-and-tax-expenditures-for-fossil-fuels-2013/sweden_9789264187610-34-en
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    Sweden
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Sweden. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2212051ec035.pdf
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    • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/inventory-of-estimated-budgetary-support-and-tax-expenditures-for-fossil-fuels-2013/switzerland_9789264187610-35-en
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    Switzerland
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Switzerland. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2212051ec036.pdf
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    • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/inventory-of-estimated-budgetary-support-and-tax-expenditures-for-fossil-fuels-2013/turkey_9789264187610-36-en
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    Turkey
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in Turkey. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2212051ec037.pdf
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    • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/inventory-of-estimated-budgetary-support-and-tax-expenditures-for-fossil-fuels-2013/united-kingdom_9789264187610-37-en
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    United Kingdom
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in the United Kingdom. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
  • Click to Access: 
      http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/2212051ec038.pdf
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    • http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/environment/inventory-of-estimated-budgetary-support-and-tax-expenditures-for-fossil-fuels-2013/united-states_9789264187610-38-en
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    United States
    This chapter identifies, documents, and provides estimates of the various budgetary transfers and tax expenditures that relate to the production or use of fossil fuels in the United States. An overview of the country’s energy economy is first given to place the measures listed into context. A data-documentation section then describes those measures in a systematic way. Whenever possible, the description details a measure’s formal beneficiary, its eligibility criteria and functioning, and the fuels whose production or use stand to benefit from the measure. The chapter ends with a set of tables that provide, subject to availability, quantitative information and estimates for the various measures listed.
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