Series on Emission Scenario Documents

English
ISSN: 
2311-4606 (online)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/23114606
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This is a selection of the Emission Scenario Document (ESDs) and Guidance documents related to ESDs. OECD has been working mainly on environmental exposure assessment for more than 10 years by developing a series of Emission Scenario Documents (ESDs) and other guidance documents and tools related to exposure of chemicals to the environment.

 
Formulation of Radiation Curable Coatings, Inks and Adhesives

Formulation of Radiation Curable Coatings, Inks and Adhesives You or your institution have access to this content

English
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    http://oecd.metastore.ingenta.com/content/9714171e.pdf
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Author(s):
OECD
03 Sep 2014
Pages:
158
ISBN:
9789264221109 (PDF)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264221109-en

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This OECD Emission Scenario Document (ESD) provides information on the sources, use patterns, and potential release pathways of chemicals used in the radiation curable products industry, specifically during formulation of radiation curable coatings, inks, and adhesives. The document focuses primarily on ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) curable products and presents standard approaches for estimating the environmental releases of and occupational exposures to components and additives used in radiation curable products.
 

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Table of Contents

Explanatory Notes 7
-Purpose and background 7
-How to use this document 7
-Coverage and methodology 8
-How this document was developed 11
1. Industry Summary and Background 18
-1.1 Introduction to Radiation Curing Products 18
2. Process Description 25
-2.1 Formulation 25
-2.2 Application 29
-2.3 Radiation Curable Formulations 29
-2.4 Physical Properties of Radiation Curable Chemicals 31
3 Overall Approach and General Facility Estimates for the Formulation of Radiation Curable Products 34
-3.1 Introduction to the General Facility Estimates 34
-3.2 Annual Facility Radiation Curable Formulation Production Rate (Qform_site_yr) 35
-3.3 Mass Fraction of the Chemical of Interest in the Radiation Curable Component (Fchem_comp) 39
-3.4 Mass Fraction of the Component in the Radiation Curable Product (Fcomp_form) 40
-3.5 Mass Fraction of the Chemical of Interest in the Radiation Curable Product (Fchem_form) 40
-3.6 Number of Formulation Sites (Nform_sites) 41
-3.7 Days of Operation (TIMEform_working_days) 41
-3.8 Annual Number of Batches (Nbt_site_yr) 42
-3.9 Daily Use Rate of the Chemical of Interest (Qform_chem_site_day) 43
-3.10 Annual Number of Radiation Curable Component Containers Emptied per Facility (Ncomp_cont_empty_site_yr) 44
-3.11 Annual Number of Radiation Curable Product Containers Filled per Facility (Nform_cont_fill_site_yr) 44
4. Environmental Release Assessments for the Formulation of Radiation Curable Products 46
-4.1 Control Technologies 48
-4.2 Transfer Operation Losses to Air from Unloading the Radiation Curable Component (Release 1) 48
-4.3 Dust Generation from Transfer Operations Released to Air, or
Collected and Released to Water, Incineration, or Landfill (Release 2) 49
-4.4 Radiation Curable Component Container Residue Released to Water,
Incineration, or Landfill (Release 3) 51
-4.5 Open Surface Losses to Air During Container Cleaning (Release 4) 54
-4.6 Vented Losses to Air During Process Operations (Release 5) 55
-4.7 Radiation Curable Product Sampling Wastes Disposed to Water,
Incineration, or Landfill (Release 6) 57
-4.8 Open Surface Losses to Air During Product Sampling (Release 7) 57
-4.9 Equipment Cleaning Releases to Incineration or Landfill (Release 8) 58
-4.10 Open Surface Losses to Air During Equipment Cleaning (Release 9) 59
-4.11 Filter Waste Releases to Incineration or Landfill during Filter Media
Changeout (Release 10) 60
-4.12 Open Surface Losses to Air During Filter Media Changeout (Release 11) 61
-4.13 Transfer Operation Losses to Air from Loading Radiation Curable
Product into Transport Containers (Release 12) 62
5. Occupational Exposure Assessments for the Formulatio of Radiation Curable Products 65
-5.1 Personal Protective Equipment 67
-5.2 Number of Workers Exposed Per Site 67
-5.3 Exposure from Unloading Solid or Liquid Chemicals (Exposure A) 69
-5.4 Exposure to Solids or Liquids During Container Cleaning (Exposure B)  73
-5.5 Exposure from Sampling Liquid Radiation Curable Product (Exposure C) 77
-5.6 Exposure to Liquids During the Equipment Cleaning of Mixers and
Other Process Equipment (Exposure D)  79
-5.7 Exposure from Changing Spent Filter Media (Exposure E) 81
-5.8 Exposure from Packaging Radiation Curable Product (Exposure F) 83
6 Sample Calculations 86
-6.1 General Facility Estimates for the Formulation of Radiation Curable Products 86
-6.2 Release Assessments for the Formulation of Radiation Curable Products 90
-6.3 Occupational Exposure Assessments for the Formulation of Radiation
Curable Products 98
7. Data Gaps / Uncertainties and Future Work 108
8. References 110
Appendix A. Estimation Equation Summary and Default Parameter Values 115
Appendix B. Background Information and Equations/Defaults for the Standard EPA Environmental Release and Worker Exposure Models 125
 

 
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